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Special Issue "Marine Fatty Acids-2013"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Valerie Smith

Scottish Oceans Institute, East Sands, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +44 1334 463443
Interests: marine microbiology and comparative immunology
Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew Desbois

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Stirlingshire, FK9 4LA, UK
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: discovery and development of antimicrobial compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fatty acids are ubiquitous natural compounds that serve various and diverse biological roles. Fatty acids exert many bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antiviral or anti-cancer effects, immune modulation, organismal toxicity, cell communication and regulation of gene transcription. The diversity of biological effects exerted by fatty acids is mainly due to differences in their structures and the types of lipids into which they are incorporated. Importantly, there is increasing appreciation for the considerable variety of fatty acids from organisms living in our oceans and their promise for biotechnological or biomedical application. Progress in this field is advancing rapidly and this Special Issue of Marine Drugs is focussed on highlighting some of the ways that fatty acids function as biological mediators or effectors and the potential of those from marine sources for development as pharmacological or therapeutic agents. As Guest Editors, we invite researchers interested in this topic to contribute original research reports and in depth reviews to this Special Issue. Accepted contributions will be published online along with invited articles.

Dr. Valerie Smith
Dr. Andrew Desbois
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • anti-cancer
  • antimicrobial
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • glycolipid
  • lipids
  • marine chemical ecology
  • monounsaturated fatty acids
  • natural products
  • omega-3
  • phospholipid
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • signalling

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Mechanism of a Lipid Extract from Hard-Shelled Mussel (Mytilus Coruscus) on Chronic Arthritis in Rats
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 568-588; doi:10.3390/md12020568
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 9 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) on adjuvant-induced (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. AIA and CIA rats that received hard-shelled mussel lipid extract (HMLE
[...] Read more.
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) on adjuvant-induced (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. AIA and CIA rats that received hard-shelled mussel lipid extract (HMLE group) at a dose of 100 mg/kg demonstrated significantly lower paw swelling and arthritic index, but higher body weight gain than those which received olive oil (control group). Similar results were found in arthritic rats that received New Zealand green-lipped mussel lipid extract (GMLE) at the same dosage. The levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in the serum, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ankle joint synovial fluids of HMLE group rats were significantly lower than those of control group. However, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in HMLE group rats were significantly higher than those in the control group. Decreased mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and MMP13, but increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) were observed in the knee joint synovium tissues of HMLE group rats when compared with the control group. No hepatotoxicity was observed in both HMLE and GMLE group rats. The present results indicated that HMLE had a similarly strong anti-inflammatory activity as GMLE. Such a strong efficacy could result from the suppression of inflammatory mediators (LTB4, PGE2, TXB2), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, INF-γ, TNF-α) and MMPs (MMP1, MMP13), and the promotion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and TIMPs (TIMP1) productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 5116-5129; doi:10.3390/md11125116
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus
[...] Read more.
In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4) from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs) in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15). These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine microalgae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4628-4640; doi:10.3390/md11114628
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel
[...] Read more.
Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols  (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4544-4557; doi:10.3390/md11114544
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections
[...] Read more.
New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4558-4569; doi:10.3390/md11114558
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral
[...] Read more.
Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle Omega-3 Fatty Acids Modulate Weibel-Palade Body Degranulation and Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement in PMA-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4435-4450; doi:10.3390/md11114435
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) produce cardiovascular benefits by improving endothelial function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand factor (vWF) in cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). We examined whether LC n-3 PUFAs regulate WPB degranulation using cultured human umbilical
[...] Read more.
Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) produce cardiovascular benefits by improving endothelial function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand factor (vWF) in cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). We examined whether LC n-3 PUFAs regulate WPB degranulation using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were incubated with or without 75 or 120 µM docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid for 5 days at 37 °C. WPB degranulation was stimulated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and this was assessed by immunocytochemical staining for vWF. Actin reorganization was determined using phalloidin-TRITC staining. We found that PMA stimulated WPB degranulation, and that this was significantly reduced by prior incubation of cells with LC n-3 PUFAs. In these cells, WPBs had rounded rather than rod-shaped morphology and localized to the perinuclear region, suggesting interference with cytoskeletal remodeling that is necessary for complete WPB degranulation. In line with this, actin rearrangement was altered in cells containing perinuclear WPBs, where cells exhibited a thickened actin rim in the absence of prominent cytoplasmic stress fibers. These findings indicate that LC n-3 PUFAs provide some protection against WBP degranulation, and may contribute to an improved understanding of the anti-thrombotic effects previously attributed to LC n-3 PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle LC-PUFA-Enriched Oil Production by Microalgae: Accumulation of Lipid and Triacylglycerols Containing n-3 LC-PUFA Is Triggered by Nitrogen Limitation and Inorganic Carbon Availability in the Marine Haptophyte Pavlova lutheri
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4246-4266; doi:10.3390/md11114246
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In most microalgal species, triacyglycerols (TAG) contain mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, rather than PUFA, while PUFA-enriched oil is the form most desirable for dietary intake. The ability of some species to produce LC-PUFA-enriched oil is currently of specific interest. In this
[...] Read more.
In most microalgal species, triacyglycerols (TAG) contain mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, rather than PUFA, while PUFA-enriched oil is the form most desirable for dietary intake. The ability of some species to produce LC-PUFA-enriched oil is currently of specific interest. In this work, we investigated the role of sodium bicarbonate availability on lipid accumulation and n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG during batch cultivation of Pavlova lutheri. Maximum growth and nitrate uptake exhibit an optimum concentration and threshold tolerance to bicarbonate addition (~9 mM) above which both parameters decreased. Nonetheless, the transient highest cellular lipid and TAG contents were obtained at 18 mM bicarbonate, immediately after combined alkaline pH stress and nitrate depletion (day nine), while oil body and TAG accumulation were highly repressed with low carbon supply (2 mM). Despite decreases in the proportions of EPA and DHA, maximum volumetric and cellular EPA and DHA contents were obtained at this stage due to accumulation of TAG containing EPA/DHA. TAG accounted for 74% of the total fatty acid per cell, containing 55% and 67% of the overall cellular EPA and DHA contents, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that inorganic carbon availability and elevated pH represent two limiting factors for lipid and TAG accumulation, as well as n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG, under nutrient-depleted P. lutheri cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Anxiolytic-Like Effect of a Salmon Phospholipopeptidic Complex Composed of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Bioactive Peptides
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4294-4317; doi:10.3390/md11114294
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A phospholipopeptidic complex obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of salmon heads in green conditions; exert anxiolytic-like effects in a time and dose-dependent manner, with no affection of locomotor activity. This study focused on the physico-chemical properties of the lipidic and peptidic fractions from
[...] Read more.
A phospholipopeptidic complex obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of salmon heads in green conditions; exert anxiolytic-like effects in a time and dose-dependent manner, with no affection of locomotor activity. This study focused on the physico-chemical properties of the lipidic and peptidic fractions from this natural product. The characterization of mineral composition, amino acid and fatty acids was carried out. Stability of nanoemulsions allowed us to realize a behavioral study conducted with four different tests on 80 mice. This work highlighted the dose dependent effects of the natural complex and its various fractions over a period of 14 days compared to a conventional anxiolytic. The intracellular redox status of neural cells was evaluated in order to determine the free radicals scavenging potential of these products in the central nervous system (CNS), after mice sacrifice. The complex peptidic fraction showed a strong scavenging property and similar results were found for the complex as well as its lipidic fraction. For the first time, the results of this study showed the anxiolytic-like and neuroprotective properties of a phospholipopeptidic complex extracted from salmon head. The applications on anxiety disorders might be relevant, depending on the doses, the fraction used and the chronicity of the supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3676-3688; doi:10.3390/md11103676
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current
[...] Read more.
Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3742-3753; doi:10.3390/md11103742
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae
[...] Read more.
Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method) and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina) which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3569-3581; doi:10.3390/md11093569
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 20 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n = 121) were randomised to Omacor® or olive oil as placebo (2 g/day) until surgery (median 21 days). Blood pressure, plasma lipids, and plasma inflammatory markers were determined. There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 concentrations, in both groups. The extent of triglyceride lowering was greater with Omacor® (25%) compared with placebo (9%). Soluble E-selectin concentration was significantly decreased in the Omacor® group but increased in the placebo group. At the end of the supplementation period there were no differences in blood pressure or in plasma lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations between the two groups. It is concluded that Omacor® given at 2 g/day for an average of 21 days to patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis lowers triglycerides and soluble E-selectin concentrations, but has limited broad impact on the plasma lipid profile or on inflammatory markers. This may be because the duration of intervention was too short or the dose of n-3 fatty acids was too low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Low-Dose Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Plasma Levels of sCD36 in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3324-3334; doi:10.3390/md11093324
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 30 August 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in lipid uptake and inflammation. Recently, non-cell-bound CD36 (sCD36) was identified in plasma and suggested to be a marker of lipid accumulation in the vessel wall. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have cardioprotective effects.
[...] Read more.
CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in lipid uptake and inflammation. Recently, non-cell-bound CD36 (sCD36) was identified in plasma and suggested to be a marker of lipid accumulation in the vessel wall. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have cardioprotective effects. This study evaluated the effect of marine n-3 PUFA on sCD36 levels in overweight subjects. Fifty overweight subjects were randomized to 1.1 g of n-3 PUFA or 2 g of olive oil daily for six weeks. Neutrophils were isolated at baseline and after six weeks of treatment while an adipose tissue biopsy was obtained at baseline. The content of n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue and neutrophils was analyzed by gas chromatography, while plasma levels of sCD36 were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After six weeks of supplement plasma sCD36 did not differ between supplements (P = 0.18). There was no significant correlation between plasma sCD36 levels and n-3 PUFA in neutrophils at baseline (r = −0.02, P = 0.88), after six weeks supplement (r = −0.03, P = 0.85) or in adipose tissue (r = 0.14, P = 0.34). This study therefore does not provide evidence for a cardioprotective effect of n-3 PUFA acting through a CD36-dependent mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Pathways of Lipid Metabolism in Marine Algae, Co-Expression Network, Bottlenecks and Candidate Genes for Enhanced Production of EPA and DHA in Species of Chromista
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4662-4697; doi:10.3390/md11114662
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable
[...] Read more.
The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable capacity, and it is therefore imperative to develop alternative n-3 LC-PUFA sources for both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Genera of algae such as Nannochloropsis, Schizochytrium, Isochrysis and Phaedactylum within the kingdom Chromista have received attention due to their ability to produce n-3 LC-PUFAs. Knowledge of LC-PUFA synthesis and its regulation in algae at the molecular level is fragmentary and represents a bottleneck for attempts to enhance the n-3 LC-PUFA levels for industrial production. In the present review, Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used to exemplify the synthesis and compartmentalization of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Based on recent transcriptome data a co-expression network of 106 genes involved in lipid metabolism has been created. Together with recent molecular biological and metabolic studies, a model pathway for n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis in P. tricornutum has been proposed, and is compared to industrialized species of Chromista. Limitations of the n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis by enzymes such as thioesterases, elongases, acyl-CoA synthetases and acyltransferases are discussed and metabolic bottlenecks are hypothesized such as the supply of the acetyl-CoA and NADPH. A future industrialization will depend on optimization of chemical compositions and increased biomass production, which can be achieved by exploitation of the physiological potential, by selective breeding and by genetic engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessReview Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3998-4018; doi:10.3390/md11103998
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae,
[...] Read more.
Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)

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