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Special Issue "Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Blanca Laffon

Toxicology Unit, Psychobiology Department, University of A Coruña, Edificio de Servicios Centrales de Investigación, Campus Elviña s/n, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The oceans sustain a huge variety of fish, marine mammals, invertebrates, macro- and microalgae, cyanobacteria and other microorganisms. The level of diversity is much higher than it is on land; it is only partly explored, and that gives an essentially limitless source of structurally unique chemical compounds with potential biological activity.
A great percentage of all new drugs introduced in the market come from natural substances. Many of these drugs and related products, such as functional foods and nutraceuticals, have been derived from marine organisms, showing that despite increasingly sophisticated and effectiveness methods to design and produce drugs in the lab, Mother Nature is still the best pharmacological factory. Thus, many marine compounds are being studied for biomedical activity (anticoagulant, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, etc.) as potential pharmaceuticals for the benefit of humankind, yielding important information on their cytogenetic and molecular effects and mechanisms of action.
Marine compounds are also investigated for possible cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. So, for all substances that will potentially be in contact with humans and released into the environment, there is an impelling need to reveal their possible interactions with cell compounds and eventually their effects on human health and on the ecosystems.
Besides, other marine compounds are toxic for the human beings. This is the case of the marine toxins, a wide group of substances that can contaminate seafood, mainly shellfish and fish, resulting in food poisoning. Although the vast effects for human health are generally well known, the molecular basis of their action mechanisms have not been always described in detail.
Therefore, the main objective of this special issue of Marine Drugs is to compile studies on the effects of marine compounds, both from the cytogenetic and the molecular points of view.

Prof. Dr. Blanca Laffon
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • marine compounds
  • marine drugs
  • marine toxins
  • molecular effects
  • molecular targets
  • molecular interactions
  • gene expression
  • protein expression
  • genotoxicity
  • DNA repair
  • cytotoxicity Ecotoxicity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Reporter Dyes Demonstrate Functional Expression of Multidrug Resistance Proteins in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano: The Sponge-Derived Dye Ageladine A Is Not a Substrate of These Transporters
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3951-3969; doi:10.3390/md11103951
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine plathyhelminth Macrostomum lignano was recently isolated from Adriatic shore sediments where it experiences a wide variety of environmental challenges, ranging from hypoxia and reoxygenation, feeding on toxic algae, to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. As multidrug resistance transporters constitute the first line
[...] Read more.
The marine plathyhelminth Macrostomum lignano was recently isolated from Adriatic shore sediments where it experiences a wide variety of environmental challenges, ranging from hypoxia and reoxygenation, feeding on toxic algae, to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. As multidrug resistance transporters constitute the first line of defense against toxins and toxicants we have studied the presence of such transporters in M. lignano in living animals by applying optical methods and pharmacological inhibitors that had been developed for mammalian cells. Application of the MDR1 inhibitor Verapamil or of the MRP1 inhibitors MK571 or Probenecid increased the intracellular fluorescence of the reporter dyes Fura-2 am, Calcein am, Fluo-3 am in the worms, but did not affect their staining with the dyes Rhodamine B, CMFDA or Ageladine A. The marine sponge alkaloid Ageladine A remained intracellularly trapped for several days in the worms, suggesting that it does not serve as substrate of multidrug resistance exporters. In addition, Ageladine A did not affect multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-mediated dye export from M. lignano or the MRP1-mediated glutathione (GSH) export from cultured rat brain astrocytes. The data obtained demonstrate that life-imaging is a useful tool to address physiological drug export from intact marine transparent flatworms by using multiphoton scanning microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3335-3349; doi:10.3390/md11093335
Received: 3 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 30 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is
[...] Read more.
Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4370-4389; doi:10.3390/md11114370
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving
[...] Read more.
The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
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Open AccessReview Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4328-4349; doi:10.3390/md11114328
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning
[...] Read more.
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Open AccessReview Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3689-3717; doi:10.3390/md11103689
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on
[...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Open AccessReview Advances in the Study of the Structures and Bioactivities of Metabolites Isolated from Mangrove-Derived Fungi in the South China Sea
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3601-3616; doi:10.3390/md11103601
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many metabolites with novel structures and biological activities have been isolated from the mangrove fungi in the South China Sea, such as anthracenediones, xyloketals, sesquiterpenoids, chromones, lactones, coumarins and isocoumarin derivatives, xanthones, and peroxides. Some compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties,
[...] Read more.
Many metabolites with novel structures and biological activities have been isolated from the mangrove fungi in the South China Sea, such as anthracenediones, xyloketals, sesquiterpenoids, chromones, lactones, coumarins and isocoumarin derivatives, xanthones, and peroxides. Some compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, but the biosynthesis of these compounds is still limited. This review summarizes the advances in the study of secondary metabolites from the mangrove-derived fungi in the South China Sea, and their biological activities reported between 2008 and mid-2013. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Open AccessReview Okadaic Acid Meet and Greet: An Insight into Detection Methods, Response Strategies and Genotoxic Effects in Marine Invertebrates
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 2829-2845; doi:10.3390/md11082829
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) constitute one of the most important sources of contamination in the oceans, producing high concentrations of potentially harmful biotoxins that are accumulated across the food chains. One such biotoxin, Okadaic Acid (OA), is produced by marine dinoflagellates and subsequently
[...] Read more.
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) constitute one of the most important sources of contamination in the oceans, producing high concentrations of potentially harmful biotoxins that are accumulated across the food chains. One such biotoxin, Okadaic Acid (OA), is produced by marine dinoflagellates and subsequently accumulated within the tissues of filtering marine organisms feeding on HABs, rapidly spreading to their predators in the food chain and eventually reaching human consumers causing Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) syndrome. While numerous studies have thoroughly evaluated the effects of OA in mammals, the attention drawn to marine organisms in this regard has been scarce, even though they constitute primary targets for this biotoxin. With this in mind, the present work aimed to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into the current literature on the effect of OA in marine invertebrates, along with the strategies developed by these organisms to respond to its toxic effect together with the most important methods and techniques used for OA detection and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
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