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Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells
University of La Rochelle, UMRi CNRS 7266 LIENSs, F-17042, La Rochelle, France
University of La Rochelle, UMRi CNRS 7266 LIENSs, Platform for the High Resolution Analysis of Biomolecules, F-17071, La Rochelle cedex 9, France
IFREMER, Laboratory PBA, IFREMER Centre Nantes, F-44311, Nantes, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2013; in revised form: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Abstract: The glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa (Cp) was chemically investigated to identify pigments efficiently inhibiting malignant melanoma, mammary carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells growth. Cp water and ethanol extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the three cancer cell lines in vitro, at 100 µg·mL−1. Flash chromatography of the Cp ethanol extract, devoid of c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, enabled the collection of eight fractions, four of which strongly inhibited cancer cells growth at 100 µg·mL−1. Particularly, two fractions inhibited more than 90% of the melanoma cells growth, one inducing apoptosis in the three cancer cells lines. The detailed analysis of Cp pigment composition resulted in the discrimination of 17 molecules, ten of which were unequivocally identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Pheophorbide a, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were the three main pigments or derivatives responsible for the strong cytotoxicity of Cp fractions in cancer cells. These data point to Cyanophora paradoxa as a new microalgal source to purify potent anticancer pigments, and demonstrate for the first time the strong antiproliferative activity of zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in melanoma cells.
Keywords: pigments; microalgae; Cyanophora paradoxa; melanoma; cancer; apoptosis; zeaxanthin; cryptoxanthin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Baudelet, P.-H.; Gagez, A.-L.; Bérard, J.-B.; Juin, C.; Bridiau, N.; Kaas, R.; Thiéry, V.; Cadoret, J.-P.; Picot, L. Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4390-4406.
Baudelet P-H, Gagez A-L, Bérard J-B, Juin C, Bridiau N, Kaas R, Thiéry V, Cadoret J-P, Picot L. Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4390-4406.
Baudelet, Paul-Hubert; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Bérard, Jean-Baptiste; Juin, Camille; Bridiau, Nicolas; Kaas, Raymond; Thiéry, Valérie; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Picot, Laurent. 2013. "Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4390-4406.