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Sensors, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 7302-8202

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Open AccessArticle An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7302-7313; doi:10.3390/s110807302
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of
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Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Real-Time Gait Cycle Parameter Recognition Using a Wearable Accelerometry System
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7314-7326; doi:10.3390/s110807314
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a wearable accelerometry system for real-time gait cycle parameter recognition. Using a tri-axial accelerometer, the wearable motion detector is a single waist-mounted device to measure trunk accelerations during walking. Several gait cycle parameters, including cadence, step regularity,
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This paper presents the development of a wearable accelerometry system for real-time gait cycle parameter recognition. Using a tri-axial accelerometer, the wearable motion detector is a single waist-mounted device to measure trunk accelerations during walking. Several gait cycle parameters, including cadence, step regularity, stride regularity and step symmetry can be estimated in real-time by using autocorrelation procedure. For validation purposes, five Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and five young healthy adults were recruited in an experiment. The gait cycle parameters among the two subject groups of different mobility can be quantified and distinguished by the system. Practical considerations and limitations for implementing the autocorrelation procedure in such a real-time system are also discussed. This study can be extended to the future attempts in real-time detection of disabling gaits, such as festinating or freezing of gait in PD patients. Ambulatory rehabilitation, gait assessment and personal telecare for people with gait disorders are also possible applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7327-7340; doi:10.3390/s110807327
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that
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Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Systematic Error Compensation Algorithm Based on Least Squares Support Vector Regression for Star Sensor Image Centroid Estimation
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7341-7363; doi:10.3390/s110807341
Received: 13 May 2011 / Revised: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The star centroid estimation is the most important operation, which directly affects the precision of attitude determination for star sensors. This paper presents a theoretical study of the systematic error introduced by the star centroid estimation algorithm. The systematic error is analyzed through
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The star centroid estimation is the most important operation, which directly affects the precision of attitude determination for star sensors. This paper presents a theoretical study of the systematic error introduced by the star centroid estimation algorithm. The systematic error is analyzed through a frequency domain approach and numerical simulations. It is shown that the systematic error consists of the approximation error and truncation error which resulted from the discretization approximation and sampling window limitations, respectively. A criterion for choosing the size of the sampling window to reduce the truncation error is given in this paper. The systematic error can be evaluated as a function of the actual star centroid positions under different Gaussian widths of star intensity distribution. In order to eliminate the systematic error, a novel compensation algorithm based on the least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel is proposed. Simulation results show that when the compensation algorithm is applied to the 5-pixel star sampling window, the accuracy of star centroid estimation is improved from 0.06 to 6 × 10−5 pixels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle An Efficient Direction Field-Based Method for the Detection of Fasteners on High-Speed Railways
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7364-7381; doi:10.3390/s110807364
Received: 28 June 2011 / Revised: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety. The fastener is a major part of the railway which fastens the tracks to the ground. The current article presents an efficient method to detect fasteners on the basis of image
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Railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety. The fastener is a major part of the railway which fastens the tracks to the ground. The current article presents an efficient method to detect fasteners on the basis of image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which can be used to detect the absence of fasteners on the corresponding track in high-speed(up to 400 km/h). The Direction Field is extracted as the feature descriptor for recognition. In addition, the appropriate weight coefficient matrix is presented for robust and rapid matching in a complex environment. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is computation efficient and robust for the detection of fasteners in a complex environment. Through the practical device fixed on the track inspection train, enough fastener samples are obtained, and the feasibility of the method is verified at 400 km/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Integrated Systems)
Open AccessArticle Estimating the Biodegradability of Treated Sewage Samples Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7382-7394; doi:10.3390/s110807382
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified
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Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified from the SFS of the effluent wastewater samples. Protein-like fluorescence (PLF) was reduced, whereas fulvic and/or humic-like fluorescence (HLF) were enhanced, suggesting that the two fluorescence characteristics may represent biodegradable and refractory components, respectively. Five fluorescence indices were selected for the biodegradability estimation based on the spectral features changing from the influent to the effluent. Among the selected indices, the relative distribution of PLF to the total fluorescence area of SFS (Index II) exhibited the highest correlation coefficient with total organic carbon (TOC)-based biodegradability, which was even higher than those obtained with the traditional oxygen demand-based parameters. A multiple regression analysis using Index II and the area ratio of PLF to HLF (Index III) demonstrated the enhancement of the correlations from 0.558 to 0.711 for TOC-based biodegradability. The multiple regression equation finally obtained was 0.148 ´ Index II − 4.964 ´ Index III − 0.001 and 0.046 ´ Index II − 1.128 ´ Index III + 0.026. The fluorescence indices proposed here are expected to be utilized for successful development of real-time monitoring using a simple fluorescence sensing device for the biodegradability of treated sewage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Deployment of Distributed Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7395-7419; doi:10.3390/s110807395
Received: 9 June 2011 / Revised: 9 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in computation and sensing capabilities as well as in battery duration of commercially availableWireless Sensors Network (WSN) nodes are making the paradigm of an horizontal ambient intelligence infrastructure feasible. Accordingly, the sensing, computing and communicating infrastructure is set with a programmable
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The increase in computation and sensing capabilities as well as in battery duration of commercially availableWireless Sensors Network (WSN) nodes are making the paradigm of an horizontal ambient intelligence infrastructure feasible. Accordingly, the sensing, computing and communicating infrastructure is set with a programmable middleware that allows for quickly deploying different applications running on top of it so as to follow the changing ambient needs. In this scenario, we face the problem of setting up the desired application in complex scenarios with hundreds of nodes, which consists of identifying which actions should be performed by each of the nodes so as to satisfy the ambient needs while minimizing the application impact on the infrastructure battery lifetime. Accordingly, we approach the problem by considering every possible decomposition of the application’s sensing and computing operations into tasks to be assigned to each infrastructure component. The contribution of energy consumption due to the performance of each task is then considered to compute a cost function, allowing us to evaluate the viability of each  deployment solution. Simulation results show that our framework results in considerable energy conservation with respect to sink-oriented or cluster-oriented deployment approaches, particularly for networks with high node densities, non-uniform energy consumption and initial energy, and complex actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7420-7436; doi:10.3390/s110807420
Received: 22 June 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings.
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The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Unscented Kalman Filtering for Single Camera Based Motion and Shape Estimation
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7437-7454; doi:10.3390/s110807437
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate estimation of the motion and shape of a moving object is a challenging task due to great variety of noises present from sources such as electronic components and the influence of the external environment, etc. To alleviate the noise, the filtering/estimation approach
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Accurate estimation of the motion and shape of a moving object is a challenging task due to great variety of noises present from sources such as electronic components and the influence of the external environment, etc. To alleviate the noise, the filtering/estimation approach can be used to reduce it in streaming video to obtain better estimation accuracy in feature points on the moving objects. To deal with the filtering problem in the appropriate nonlinear system, the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which neglects higher-order derivatives in the linearization process, has been very popular. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF), which uses a deterministic sampling approach to capture the mean and covariance estimates with a minimal set of sample points, is able to achieve at least the second order accuracy without Jacobians’ computation involved. In this paper, the UKF is applied to the rigid body motion and shape dynamics to estimate feature points on moving objects. The performance evaluation is carried out through the numerical study. The results show that UKF demonstrates substantial improvement in accuracy estimation for implementing the estimation of motion and planar surface parameters of a single camera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Smart Pipes—Instrumented Water Pipes, Can This Be Made a Reality?
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7455-7475; doi:10.3390/s110807455
Received: 21 June 2011 / Revised: 21 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several millions of kilometres of pipes and cables are buried beneath our streets in the UK. As they are not visible and easily accessible, the monitoring of their integrity as well as the quality of their contents is a challenge. Any information of
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Several millions of kilometres of pipes and cables are buried beneath our streets in the UK. As they are not visible and easily accessible, the monitoring of their integrity as well as the quality of their contents is a challenge. Any information of these properties aids the utility owners in their planning and management of their maintenance regime. Traditionally, expensive and very localised sensors are used to provide irregular measurements of these properties. In order to have a complete picture of the utility network, cheaper sensors need to be investigated which would allow large numbers of small sensors to be incorporated into (or near to) the pipe leading to so-called smart pipes. This paper focuses on a novel trial where a short section of a prototype smart pipe was buried using mainly off-the-shelf sensors and communication elements. The challenges of such a burial are presented together with the limitations of the sensor system. Results from the sensors were obtained during and after burial indicating that off-the-shelf sensors can be used in a smart pipes system although further refinements are necessary in order to miniaturise these sensors. The key challenges identified were the powering of these sensors and the communication of the data to the operator using a range of different methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing Olive Grove Canopies by Means of Ground-Based Hemispherical Photography and Spaceborne RADAR Data
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7476-7501; doi:10.3390/s110807476
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
PDF Full-text (3401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the main strengths of active microwave remote sensing, in relation to frequency, is its capacity to penetrate vegetation canopies and reach the ground surface, so that information can be drawn about the vegetation and hydrological properties of the soil surface. All
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One of the main strengths of active microwave remote sensing, in relation to frequency, is its capacity to penetrate vegetation canopies and reach the ground surface, so that information can be drawn about the vegetation and hydrological properties of the soil surface. All this information is gathered in the so called backscattering coefficient (s0). The subject of this research have been olive groves canopies, where which types of canopy biophysical variables can be derived by a specific optical sensor and then integrated into microwave scattering models has been investigated. This has been undertaken by means of hemispherical photographs and gap fraction procedures. Then, variables such as effective and true Leaf Area Indices have been estimated. Then, in order to characterize this kind of vegetation canopy, two models based on Radiative Transfer theory have been applied and analyzed. First, a generalized two layer geometry model made up of homogeneous layers of soil and vegetation has been considered. Then, a modified version of the Xu and Steven Water Cloud Model has been assessed integrating the canopy biophysical variables derived by the suggested optical procedure. The backscattering coefficients at various polarized channels have been acquired from RADARSAT 2 (C-band), with 38.5° incidence angle at the scene center. For the soil simulation, the best results have been reached using a Dubois scattering model and the VV polarized channel (r2 = 0.88). In turn, when effective LAI (LAIeff) has been taken into account, the parameters of the scattering canopy model are better estimated (r2 = 0.89). Additionally, an inversion procedure of the vegetation microwave model with the adjusted parameters has been undertaken, where the biophysical values of the canopy retrieved by this methodology fit properly with field measured values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7502-7529; doi:10.3390/s110807502
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
PDF Full-text (6265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by
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This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle The Use of Neural Networks in Identifying Error Sources in Satellite-Derived Tropical SST Estimates
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7530-7544; doi:10.3390/s110807530
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 29 July 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An neural network model of data mining is used to identify error sources in satellite-derived tropical sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from thermal infrared sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). By using the Back Propagation Network (BPN) algorithm, it is found
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An neural network model of data mining is used to identify error sources in satellite-derived tropical sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from thermal infrared sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). By using the Back Propagation Network (BPN) algorithm, it is found that air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed variation are the major factors causing the errors of GOES SST products in the tropical Pacific. The accuracy of SST estimates is also improved by the model. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the daily SST estimate is reduced from 0.58 K to 0.38 K and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 1.03%. For the hourly mean SST estimate, its RMSE is also reduced from 0.66 K to 0.44 K and the MAPE is 1.3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Sensors Based on the Symmetry Properties of Split Ring Resonators (SRRs)
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7545-7553; doi:10.3390/s110807545
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 21 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 29 July 2011
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The symmetry properties of split ring resonators (SRRs) are exploited for the implementation of novel sensing devices. The proposed structure consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with movable SRRs on the back substrate side. It is shown that if the SRRs are
[...] Read more.
The symmetry properties of split ring resonators (SRRs) are exploited for the implementation of novel sensing devices. The proposed structure consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with movable SRRs on the back substrate side. It is shown that if the SRRs are placed with the slits aligned with the symmetry plane of the CPW, the structure is transparent to signal propagation. However, if the symmetry is broken, a net axial magnetic field can be induced in the inner region of the SRRs, and signal propagation is inhibited at resonance. The proposed structures can be useful as alignment sensors, position sensors and angle sensors. This novel sensing principle is validated through experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterials for Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Stress Wave Signal Denoising Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and an Instantaneous Half Period Model
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7554-7567; doi:10.3390/s110807554
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 19 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress-wave-based techniques have been proven to be an accurate nondestructive test means for determining the quality of wood based materials and they been widely used for this purpose. However, the results are usually inconsistent, partially due to the significant difficulties in processing the
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Stress-wave-based techniques have been proven to be an accurate nondestructive test means for determining the quality of wood based materials and they been widely used for this purpose. However, the results are usually inconsistent, partially due to the significant difficulties in processing the nonlinear, non-stationary stress wave signals which are often corrupted by noise. In this paper, an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based approach with the aim of signal denoising was proposed and applied to stress wave signals. The method defined the time interval between two adjacent zero-crossings within the intrinsic mode function (IMF) as the instantaneous half period (IHP) and used it as a criterion to detect and classify the noise oscillations. The waveform between the two adjacent zero-crossings was retained when the IHP was larger than the predefined threshold, whereas the waveforms with smaller IHP were set to zero. Finally the estimated signal was obtained by reconstructing the processed IMFs. The details of threshold choosing rules were also discussed in the paper. Additive Gaussian white noise was embedded into real stress wave signals to test the proposed method. Butterworth low pass filter, EEMD-based low pass filter and EEMD-based thresholding filter were used to compare filtering performance. Mean square error between clean and filtered stress waves was used as filtering performance indexes. The results demonstrated the excellent efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7568-7605; doi:10.3390/s110807568
Received: 9 July 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 26 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (3980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the
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Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted IMU and Portable Ultrasound Range Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7606-7624; doi:10.3390/s110807606
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore
[...] Read more.
Many solutions have been proposed for indoor pedestrian navigation. Some rely on pre-installed sensor networks, which offer good accuracy but are limited to areas that have been prepared for that purpose, thus requiring an expensive and possibly time-consuming process. Such methods are therefore inappropriate for navigation in emergency situations since the power supply may be disturbed. Other types of solutions track the user without requiring a prepared environment. However, they may have low accuracy. Offline tracking has been proposed to increase accuracy, however this prevents users from knowing their position in real time. This paper describes a real time indoor navigation system that does not require prepared building environments and provides tracking accuracy superior to previously described tracking methods. The system uses a combination of four techniques: foot-mounted IMU (Inertial Motion Unit), ultrasonic ranging, particle filtering and model-based navigation. The very purpose of the project is to combine these four well-known techniques in a novel way to provide better indoor tracking results for pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Precision Time Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7625-7643; doi:10.3390/s110807625
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Time synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a fundamental issue for the coordination of distributed entities and events. Nondeterministic latency, which may decrease the accuracy and precision of time synchronization can occur at any point in the network layers. Specially, random back-off
[...] Read more.
Time synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a fundamental issue for the coordination of distributed entities and events. Nondeterministic latency, which may decrease the accuracy and precision of time synchronization can occur at any point in the network layers. Specially, random back-off by channel contention leads to a large uncertainty. In order to reduce the large nondeterministic uncertainty from channel contention, we propose an enhanced precision time synchronization protocol in this paper. The proposed method reduces the traffic needed for the synchronization procedure by selectively forwarding the packet. Furthermore, the time difference between sensor nodes increases as time advances because of the use of a clock source with a cheap crystal oscillator. In addition, we provide a means to maintain accurate time by adopting hardware-assisted time stamp and drift correction. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, for which sensor nodes are designed and implemented. According to the evaluation results, the performance of the proposed method is better than that of a traditional time synchronization protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Suppression of Air Refractive Index Variations in High-Resolution Interferometry
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7644-7655; doi:10.3390/s110807644
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 23 July 2011 / Accepted: 24 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of the refractive index of air has proven to be a major problem on the road to improvement of the uncertainty in interferometric displacement measurements. We propose an approach with two counter-measuring interferometers acting as a combination of tracking refractometer and
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The influence of the refractive index of air has proven to be a major problem on the road to improvement of the uncertainty in interferometric displacement measurements. We propose an approach with two counter-measuring interferometers acting as a combination of tracking refractometer and a displacement interferometer referencing the wavelength of the laser source to a mechanical standard made of a material with ultra-low thermal expansion. This technique combines length measurement within a specified range with measurement of the refractive index fluctuations in one axis. Errors caused by different position of the interferometer laser beam and air sensors are thus eliminated. The method has been experimentally tested in comparison with the indirect measurement of the refractive index of air in a thermal controlled environment. Over a 1 K temperature range an agreement on the level of 5 × 10−8 has been achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Mass Sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM)-Based DNA Biosensor Using a 50 MHz Electronic Oscillator Circuit
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7656-7664; doi:10.3390/s110807656
Received: 8 July 2011 / Revised: 31 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental
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This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm2 in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7665-7677; doi:10.3390/s110807665
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This
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The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle An Optical Sensor Network for Vegetation Phenology Monitoring and Satellite Data Calibration
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7678-7709; doi:10.3390/s110807678
Received: 19 June 2011 / Revised: 21 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (4654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located in
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We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located in coniferous forests, one in a deciduous forest, and two on peatland. The instrumentation consists of dual-beam sensors measuring incoming and reflected red, green, NIR, and PAR fluxes at 10-min intervals, year-round. The sensors are mounted on separate masts or in flux towers in order to capture radiation reflected from within the flux footprint of current eddy covariance measurements. Our computations and model simulations demonstrate the validity of using off-nadir sampling, and we show the results from the first year of measurement. NDVI is computed and compared to that of the MODIS instrument on-board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7710-7723; doi:10.3390/s110807710
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are
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The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle SnO2/Pt Thin Film Laser Ablated Gas Sensor Array
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7724-7735; doi:10.3390/s110807724
Received: 5 June 2011 / Revised: 5 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm2 space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin
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A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm2 space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO2 and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa) of O2. A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7736-7748; doi:10.3390/s110807736
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 31 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film
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Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Renewable and Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosenor Based on Magnetic RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 Sandwich-Type Nano-Immunocomplexes
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7749-7762; doi:10.3390/s110807749
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ultrasensitive and renewable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for the detection of tumor markers by combining a newly designed trace tag and streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SCMPs). The trace tag (RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2) was prepared by loading Ru(bpy)32+(RuL)-conjuged secondary antibodies
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An ultrasensitive and renewable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for the detection of tumor markers by combining a newly designed trace tag and streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SCMPs). The trace tag (RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2) was prepared by loading Ru(bpy)32+(RuL)-conjuged secondary antibodies (RuL-Ab2) on RuL@SiO2 (RuL-doped SiO2) doped Au (RuL@SiO2-Au). To fabricate the immunosensor, SCMPs were mixed with biotinylated AFP primary antibody (Biotin-Ab1), AFP, and RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 complexes, then the resulting SCMP/Biotin-Ab1/AFP/RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 (SBAR) sandwich-type immunocomplexes were absorbed on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for detection. The immunocomplexes can be easily washed away from the surface of the SPCE when the magnetic field was removed, which made the immunosensor reusable. The present immunosensor showed a wide linear range of 0.05–100 ng mL–1 for detecting AFP, with a low detection limit of 0.02 ng mL–1 (defined as S/N = 3). The method takes advantage of three properties of the immunosensor: firstly, the RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 composite exhibited dual amplification since SiO2 could load large amount of reporter molecules (RuL) for signal amplification. Gold particles could provide a large active surface to load more reporter molecules (RuL-Ab2). Accordingly, through the ECL response of RuL and tripropylamine (TPA), a strong ECL signal was obtained and an amplification analysis of protein interaction was achieved. Secondly, the sensor is renewable because the sandwich-type immunocomplexes can be readily absorbed or removed on the SPCE’s surface in a magnetic field. Thirdly, the SCMP modified probes can perform the rapid separation and purification of signal antibodies in a magnetic field. Thus, the present immunosensor can simultaneously realize separation, enrichment and determination. It showed potential application for the detection of AFP in human sera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Gas Sensing Device
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7763-7772; doi:10.3390/s110807763
Received: 25 June 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this research was to develop a chemical gas sensing device based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks. The SWCNT networks are synthesized on Al2O3-deposted SiO2/Si substrates with 10 nm-thick Fe as the catalyst precursor
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The goal of this research was to develop a chemical gas sensing device based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks. The SWCNT networks are synthesized on Al2O3-deposted SiO2/Si substrates with 10 nm-thick Fe as the catalyst precursor layer using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The development of interconnected SWCNT networks can be exploited to recognize the identities of different chemical gases by the strength of their particular surface adsorptive and desorptive responses to various types of chemical vapors. The physical responses on the surface of the SWCNT networks cause superficial changes in the electric charge that can be converted into electronic signals for identification. In this study, we tested NO2 and NH3 vapors at ppm levels at room temperature with our self-made gas sensing device, which was able to obtain responses to sensitivity changes with a concentration of 10 ppm for NO2 and 24 ppm for NH3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Biomimetic Sensor for the Classification of Honeys of Different Floral Origin and the Detection of Adulteration
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7799-7822; doi:10.3390/s110807799
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 7 August 2011 / Accepted: 7 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals
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The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement in performance was also observed using a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier when the e-nose and e-tongue data were fused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Sensor Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Study Using a Monte Carlo Method of the Optimal Configuration of a Distribution Network in Terms of Power Loss Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7823-7834; doi:10.3390/s110807823
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 18 August 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently there have been many studies of power systems with a focus on “New and Renewable Energy” as part of “New Growth Engine Industry” promoted by the Korean government. “New And Renewable Energy”—especially focused on wind energy, solar energy and fuel cells that
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Recently there have been many studies of power systems with a focus on “New and Renewable Energy” as part of “New Growth Engine Industry” promoted by the Korean government. “New And Renewable Energy”—especially focused on wind energy, solar energy and fuel cells that will replace conventional fossil fuels—is a part of the Power-IT Sector which is the basis of the SmartGrid. A SmartGrid is a form of highly-efficient intelligent electricity network that allows interactivity (two-way communications) between suppliers and consumers by utilizing information technology in electricity production, transmission, distribution and consumption. The New and Renewable Energy Program has been driven with a goal to develop and spread through intensive studies, by public or private institutions, new and renewable energy which, unlike conventional systems, have been operated through connections with various kinds of distributed power generation systems. Considerable research on smart grids has been pursued in the United States and Europe. In the United States, a variety of research activities on the smart power grid have been conducted within EPRI's IntelliGrid research program. The European Union (EU), which represents Europe’s Smart Grid policy, has focused on an expansion of distributed generation (decentralized generation) and power trade between countries with improved environmental protection. Thus, there is current emphasis on a need for studies that assesses the economic efficiency of such distributed generation systems. In this paper, based on the cost of distributed power generation capacity, calculations of the best profits obtainable were made by a Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulations that rely on repeated random sampling to compute their results take into account the cost of electricity production, daily loads and the cost of sales and generate a result faster than mathematical computations. In addition, we have suggested the optimal design, which considers the distribution loss associated with power distribution systems focus on sensing aspect and distributed power generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessCommunication Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7835-7850; doi:10.3390/s110807835
Received: 19 July 2011 / Revised: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into
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Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FGIT 2010)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Control of a Ferromagnetic Coded Micro-Carrier Biochip Sensor for Multiplex Detection of Antibodies
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7851-7864; doi:10.3390/s110807851
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 23 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
PDF Full-text (1617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a method for producing a novel type of ferromagnetic coded micro-carrier. The ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers are about 200 μm in length, 200 μm in width and 50 μm in thickness, and contain eight code elements with two distinguishable codes (hollow
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This paper describes a method for producing a novel type of ferromagnetic coded micro-carrier. The ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers are about 200 μm in length, 200 μm in width and 50 μm in thickness, and contain eight code elements with two distinguishable codes (hollow and solid), allowing for 28 unique codes. The code shapes include rectangle, circle, etc. Differently shaped coded micro-carriers could carry different antigens for detection of its complementary antibody. These many shapes of coded micro-carriers would be used simultaneously allowing us to make multiple detections for different antibodies at the same time. A molding process is applied for fabrication of the ferromagnetically coded micro-carriers where Fe material (Fe powder mixed with binder) is shaped in many tiny molds to produce the coded shapes used for identification of the bio-molecules. Magnetic force is used to control the movement and location of the ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers to prevent the loss during the hybridization process. The results of image process and analysis system testing are satisfactory. The results of our micro-carrier detection system for two sets of R and B color analysis are proportional to those obtained from ELISA antibody detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle LuxCDABE—Transformed Constitutively Bioluminescent Escherichia coli for Toxicity Screening: Comparison with Naturally Luminous Vibrio fischeri
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7865-7878; doi:10.3390/s110807865
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We show that in vitro toxicity assay based on inhibition of the bioluminescence of recombinant Escherichia coli encoding thermostable luciferase from Photorhabdus luminescens is a versatile alternative to Vibrio fischeri MicrotoxTM test. Performance of two luxCDABE-transformed E. coli MC1061 constructs (pDNlux)
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We show that in vitro toxicity assay based on inhibition of the bioluminescence of recombinant Escherichia coli encoding thermostable luciferase from Photorhabdus luminescens is a versatile alternative to Vibrio fischeri MicrotoxTM test. Performance of two luxCDABE-transformed E. coli MC1061 constructs (pDNlux) and (pSLlux) otherwise identical, but having 100-fold different background luminescence was compared with the performance of V. fischeri. The microplate luminometer and a kinetic Flash-Assay test format was used that differently from Microtox test is also applicable for high throughput analysis. Toxic effects (30-s till 30-min EC50) of four heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Hg, Cu) and three organic chemicals (aniline, 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichlorophenol) were studied. Both E. coli strains had comparable sensitivity and the respective 30-min EC50 values highly correlated (log-log R2 = 0.99; p < 0.01) showing that the sensitivity of the recombinant bacteria towards chemicals analyzed did not depend on the bioluminescence level of the recombinant cells. The most toxic chemical for all used bacterial strains (E. coli, V. fischeri) was mercury whereas the lowest EC50 values for Hg (0.04–0.05 mg/L) and highest EC50 values for aniline (1,300–1,700 mg/L) were observed for E. coli strains. Despite of that, toxicity results obtained with both E. coli strains (pSLlux and pDNlux) significantly correlated with V. fischeri results (log-log R2 = 0.70/0.75; p < 0.05/0.01). The use of amino acids (0.25%) and glucose (0.05%)-supplemented M9 medium instead of leucine-supplemented saline significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the apparent toxicity of heavy metals to both E. coli strains up to three orders of magnitude, but had little or no complexing effect on organic compounds. Thus, P. luminescens luxCDABE-transformed E. coli strains can be successfully used for the acute toxicity screening of various types of organic chemicals and heavy metals and can replace V. fischeri in certain cases where the thermostability of luciferase >30 °C is crucial. The kinetic Flash Assay test format of the bioluminescence inhibition assay facilitates high throughput analysis. The assay medium, especially in case of testing heavy metals should be a compromise: optimal for the viability/luminescence of the recombinant test strain and of minimum complexing potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Toxic and Hazardous Metals in Various Environmental Media)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Two-Color Semiconductor Nanocrystal Immunoassays in Single Well Microtiter Plate Formats
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7879-7891; doi:10.3390/s110807879
Received: 25 April 2011 / Revised: 29 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The simultaneous detection of two analytes, chicken IgY (IgG) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), in the single well of a 96-well plate is demonstrated using luminescent semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystal (NC) tracers. The NC-labeled antibodies were prepared via sulfhydryl-reactive chemistry using a facile
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The simultaneous detection of two analytes, chicken IgY (IgG) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), in the single well of a 96-well plate is demonstrated using luminescent semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystal (NC) tracers. The NC-labeled antibodies were prepared via sulfhydryl-reactive chemistry using a facile protocol that took Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
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Open AccessArticle A Low-Cost CMOS-MEMS Piezoresistive Accelerometer with Large Proof Mass
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7892-7907; doi:10.3390/s110807892
Received: 15 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports a low-cost, high-sensitivity CMOS-MEMS piezoresistive accelerometer with large proof mass. In the device fabricated using ON Semiconductor 0.5 μm CMOS technology, an inherent CMOS polysilicon thin film is utilized as the piezoresistive sensing material. A full Wheatstone bridge was constructed
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This paper reports a low-cost, high-sensitivity CMOS-MEMS piezoresistive accelerometer with large proof mass. In the device fabricated using ON Semiconductor 0.5 μm CMOS technology, an inherent CMOS polysilicon thin film is utilized as the piezoresistive sensing material. A full Wheatstone bridge was constructed through easy wiring allowed by the three metal layers in the 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The device fabrication process consisted of a standard CMOS process for sensor configuration, and a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) based post-CMOS microfabrication for MEMS structure release. A bulk single-crystal silicon (SCS) substrate is included in the proof mass to increase sensor sensitivity. In device design and analysis, the self heating of the polysilicon piezoresistors and its effect to the sensor performance is also discussed. With a low operating power of 1.5 mW, the accelerometer demonstrates a sensitivity of 0.077 mV/g prior to any amplification. Dynamic tests have been conducted with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Network Coding on Heterogeneous Multi-Core Processors for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7908-7933; doi:10.3390/s110807908
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While network coding is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in wireless sensor networks, the excessive costs associated with decoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption into practical use. On the other hand, high-performance microprocessors with heterogeneous multi-cores would be used
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While network coding is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in wireless sensor networks, the excessive costs associated with decoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption into practical use. On the other hand, high-performance microprocessors with heterogeneous multi-cores would be used as processing nodes of the wireless sensor networks in the near future. To this end, this paper introduces an efficient network coding algorithm developed for the heterogenous multi-core processors. The proposed idea is fully tested on one of the currently available heterogeneous multi-core processors referred to as the Cell Broadband Engine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microprocessors and System-on-Chip)
Open AccessArticle The Role of Exploratory Conditions in Bio-Inspired Tactile Sensing of Single Topogical Features
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7934-7953; doi:10.3390/s110807934
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 30 July 2011 / Accepted: 1 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (9400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate the mechanism of tactile transduction during active exploration of finely textured surfaces using a tactile sensor mimicking the human fingertip. We focus in particular on the role of exploratory conditions in shaping the subcutaneous mechanical signals. The sensor has been designed
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We investigate the mechanism of tactile transduction during active exploration of finely textured surfaces using a tactile sensor mimicking the human fingertip. We focus in particular on the role of exploratory conditions in shaping the subcutaneous mechanical signals. The sensor has been designed by integrating a linear array of MEMS micro-force sensors in an elastomer layer. We measure the response of the sensors to the passage of elementary topographical features at constant velocity and normal load, such as a small hole on a flat substrate. Each sensor’s response is found to strongly depend on its relative location with respect to the substrate/skin contact zone, a result which can be quantitatively understood within the scope of a linear model of tactile transduction. The modification of the response induced by varying other parameters, such as the thickness of the elastic layer and the confining load, are also correctly captured by this model. We further demonstrate that the knowledge of these characteristic responses allows one to dynamically evaluate the position of a small hole within the contact zone, based on the micro-force sensors signals, with a spatial resolution an order of magnitude better than the intrinsic resolution of individual sensors. Consequences of these observations on robotic tactile sensing are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Broadband Wide Angle Lens Implemented with Dielectric Metamaterials
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7982-7991; doi:10.3390/s110807982
Received: 8 July 2011 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Luneburg lens is a powerful imaging device, exhibiting aberration free focusing for parallel rays incident from any direction. However, its advantages are offset by a focal surface that is spherical and thus difficult to integrate with standard planar detector and emitter arrays.
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The Luneburg lens is a powerful imaging device, exhibiting aberration free focusing for parallel rays incident from any direction. However, its advantages are offset by a focal surface that is spherical and thus difficult to integrate with standard planar detector and emitter arrays. Using the recently developed technique of transformation optics, it is possible to transform the curved focal surface to a flat plane while maintaining the perfect focusing behavior of the Luneburg over a wide field of view. Here we apply these techniques to a lesser-known refractive Luneburg lens and implement the design with a metamaterial composed of a semi-crystalline distribution of holes drilled in a dielectric. In addition, we investigate the aberrations introduced by various approximations made in the implementation of the lens. The resulting design approach has improved mechanical strength with small aberrations and is ideally suited to implementation at infrared and visible wavelengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterials for Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Field Programmable Gate Array Based Parallel Strapdown Algorithm Design for Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7993-8017; doi:10.3390/s110807993
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is
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A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is sufficiently high to accurately account for high frequency angular rate and acceleration rectification effects. Different from existing algorithms, the updating rates of the coning and sculling compensations are unrelated with the number of the gyro incremental angle samples and the number of the accelerometer incremental velocity samples. When the output sampling rate of inertial sensors remains constant, this algorithm allows increasing the updating rate of the coning and sculling compensation, yet with more numbers of gyro incremental angle and accelerometer incremental velocity in order to improve the accuracy of system. Then, in order to implement the new strapdown algorithm in a single FPGA chip, the parallelization of the algorithm is designed and its computational complexity is analyzed. The performance of the proposed parallel strapdown algorithm is tested on the Xilinx ISE 12.3 software platform and the FPGA device XC6VLX550T hardware platform on the basis of some fighter data. It is shown that this parallel strapdown algorithm on the FPGA platform can greatly decrease the execution time of algorithm to meet the real-time and high precision requirements of system on the high dynamic environment, relative to the existing implemented on the DSP platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism on uidA Gene of Escherichia coli by a Multiplexed Electrochemical DNA Biosensor with Oligonucleotide-Incorporated Nonfouling Surface
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8018-8027; doi:10.3390/s110808018
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 16 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report here a practical application of a multiplexed electrochemical DNA sensor for highly specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. In this work, a 16-electrode array was applied with an oligonucleotide-incorporated nonfouling surfaces (ONS) on each electrode for the resistance of unspecific absorption. The
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We report here a practical application of a multiplexed electrochemical DNA sensor for highly specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. In this work, a 16-electrode array was applied with an oligonucleotide-incorporated nonfouling surfaces (ONS) on each electrode for the resistance of unspecific absorption. The fully matched target DNA templated the ligation between the capture probe assembled on gold electrodes and the tandem signal probe with a biotin moiety, which could be transduced to peroxidase-based catalyzed amperometric signals. A mutant site (T93G) in uidA gene of E. coli was analyzed in PCR amplicons. 10% percentage of single mismatched mutant gene was detected, which clearly proved the selectivity of the multiplexed electrochemical DNA biosensor when practically applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Noise-Aware Coding Scheme for Texture Classification
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8028-8044; doi:10.3390/s110808028
Received: 15 June 2011 / Revised: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Texture-based analysis of images is a very common and much discussed issue in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Several methods have already been proposed to codify texture micro-patterns (texlets) in images. Most of these methods perform well when a given
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Texture-based analysis of images is a very common and much discussed issue in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Several methods have already been proposed to codify texture micro-patterns (texlets) in images. Most of these methods perform well when a given image is noise-free, but real world images contain different types of signal-independent as well as signal-dependent noises originated from different sources, even from the camera sensor itself. Hence, it is necessary to differentiate false textures appearing due to the noises, and thus, to achieve a reliable representation of texlets. In this proposal, we define an adaptive noise band (ANB) to approximate the amount of noise contamination around a pixel up to a certain extent. Based on this ANB, we generate reliable codes named noise tolerant ternary pattern (NTTP) to represent the texlets in an image. Extensive experiments on several datasets from renowned texture databases, such as the Outex and the Brodatz database, show that NTTP performs much better than the state-of-the-art methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8045-8059; doi:10.3390/s110808045
Received: 8 July 2011 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height) error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output.
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In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height) error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8060-8071; doi:10.3390/s110808060
Received: 16 July 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper,
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Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM) layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs). The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivities of Key Parameters in the Preparation of Silver/Silver Chloride Electrodes Used in Harned Cell Measurements of pH
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8072-8084; doi:10.3390/s110808072
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A questionnaire was completed by fourteen world leading national metrology institutes to study the influence of several variables in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes on the accuracy of Harned cell measurements of pH. The performance of each institute in the last decade has
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A questionnaire was completed by fourteen world leading national metrology institutes to study the influence of several variables in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes on the accuracy of Harned cell measurements of pH. The performance of each institute in the last decade has been assessed based on their results in eight key comparisons, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, involving the measurement of pH of phosphate, phthalate, carbonate, borate and tetroxalate buffer solutions. The performance of each laboratory has been correlated to the results of the questionnaire to determine the critical parameters in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes and their sensitivities with respect to the accuracy of pH measurement. This study reveals that the parameters most closely correlated to performance in comparisons are area of electrode wire exposed to the electrolyte, diameter and porosity of the Ag sphere prior to anodisation, amount of Ag converted to AgCl during anodisation, stability times employed for electrodes to reach equilibrium in solution prior to measurement, electrode rejection criteria employed and purity of reagents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns for Intelligent Sensors—Knowledge Engineering-Based Implementation
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8085-8114; doi:10.3390/s110808085
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems
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Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems in high risk environments. The paper presents the background and results of the previous research on patterns-based security specifications and introduces a new ontological approach. The elaborated ontology and knowledge base were validated on the IT security development process dealing with the sensor example. The contribution of the paper concerns the application of the knowledge engineering methodology to the previously developed Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for intelligent sensor security development. The issue presented in the paper has a broader significance in terms that it can solve information security problems in many application domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Robustifying Vector Median Filter
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8115-8126; doi:10.3390/s110808115
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use
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This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Dual-Functional On-Chip AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky Diode for RF Power Detection and Low-Power Rectenna Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8127-8142; doi:10.3390/s110808127
Received: 15 July 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Schottky diode has been designed and fabricated on an n-AlGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) structure. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements show good device rectification, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.4349 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The differences between the Schottky barrier height and
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A Schottky diode has been designed and fabricated on an n-AlGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) structure. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements show good device rectification, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.4349 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The differences between the Schottky barrier height and the theoretical value (1.443 eV) are due to the fabrication process and smaller contact area. The RF signals up to 1 GHz are rectified well by the fabricated Schottky diode and a stable DC output voltage is obtained. The increment ratio of output voltage vs input power is 0.2 V/dBm for all tested frequencies, which is considered good enough for RF power detection. Power conversion efficiency up to 50% is obtained at frequency of 1 GHz and input power of 20 dBm with series connection between diode and load, which also shows the device’s good potential as a rectenna device with further improvement. The fabricated n-AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode thus provides a conduit for breakthrough designs for RF power detectors, as well as ultra-low power on-chip rectenna device technology to be integrated in nanosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Polyaniline/PVA Humidity Microsensors
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8143-8151; doi:10.3390/s110808143
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that is
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This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that is prepared by the sol-gel method, and the film has nanofiber and porous structures that help increase the sensing reaction. The commercial 0.35 mm Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process is used to fabricate the humidity microsensor. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial layer and to coat the sensitive film on the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor produces a change in resistance as the polyaniline/PVA film absorbs or desorbs vapor. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 12.6 kΩ/%RH at 25 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessArticle An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Prepared from Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polyvinylsulfonate Film
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8152-8163; doi:10.3390/s110808152
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential
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In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate (Pani-Pvs) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of aniline on the Pt surface of the Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl) using an electrochemical cell containing aniline and polyvinylsulphonate. Firstly, the optimum working conditions for preparing polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate films were investigated. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 75% of the response current was retained after 16 activity assays. The prepared glucose biosensor retained 80.6% of initial activity after 40 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle FPGA-Based Multimodal Embedded Sensor System Integrating Low- and Mid-Level Vision
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8164-8179; doi:10.3390/s110808164
Received: 16 February 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motion estimation is a low-level vision task that is especially relevant due to its wide range of applications in the real world. Many of the best motion estimation algorithms include some of the features that are found in mammalians, which would demand huge
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Motion estimation is a low-level vision task that is especially relevant due to its wide range of applications in the real world. Many of the best motion estimation algorithms include some of the features that are found in mammalians, which would demand huge computational resources and therefore are not usually available in real-time. In this paper we present a novel bioinspired sensor based on the synergy between optical flow and orthogonal variant moments. The bioinspired sensor has been designed for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) using properties of the mammalian cortical motion pathway. This sensor combines low-level primitives (optical flow and image moments) in order to produce a mid-level vision abstraction layer. The results are described trough experiments showing the validity of the proposed system and an analysis of the computational resources and performance of the applied algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Sensor Systems)
Open AccessArticle LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8180-8202; doi:10.3390/s110808180
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 23 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One
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A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Sensor Systems)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Optical NDT Technologies
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7773-7798; doi:10.3390/s110807773
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 2 August 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical non-destructive testing (NDT) has gained more and more attention in recent years, mainly because of its non-destructive imaging characteristics with high precision and sensitivity. This paper provides a review of the main optical NDT technologies, including fibre optics, electronic speckle, infrared thermography,
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Optical non-destructive testing (NDT) has gained more and more attention in recent years, mainly because of its non-destructive imaging characteristics with high precision and sensitivity. This paper provides a review of the main optical NDT technologies, including fibre optics, electronic speckle, infrared thermography, endoscopic and terahertz technology. Among them, fibre optics features easy integration and embedding, electronic speckle focuses on whole-field high precision detection, infrared thermography has unique advantages for tests of combined materials, endoscopic technology provides images of the internal surface of the object directly, and terahertz technology opens a new direction of internal NDT because of its excellent penetration capability to most of non-metallic materials. Typical engineering applications of these technologies are illustrated, with a brief introduction of the history and discussion of recent progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7954-7981; doi:10.3390/s110807954
Received: 18 July 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the currently available optical sensors, their limitations and opportunities for deployment at Eddy Covariance (EC) sites in Europe. This review is based on the results obtained from an online survey designed and disseminated by the Co-cooperation in Science and Technology
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This paper reviews the currently available optical sensors, their limitations and opportunities for deployment at Eddy Covariance (EC) sites in Europe. This review is based on the results obtained from an online survey designed and disseminated by the Co-cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ESO903—“Spectral Sampling Tools for Vegetation Biophysical Parameters and Flux Measurements in Europe” that provided a complete view on spectral sampling activities carried out within the different research teams in European countries. The results have highlighted that a wide variety of optical sensors are in use at flux sites across Europe, and responses further demonstrated that users were not always fully aware of the key issues underpinning repeatability and the reproducibility of their spectral measurements. The key findings of this survey point towards the need for greater awareness of the need for standardisation and development of a common protocol of optical sampling at the European EC sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)

Other

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Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Eldefrawy, M.H.; Khan, M.K.; Alghathbar, K.; Tolba, A.S.; Kim, K.J. Authenticated Key Agreement with Rekeying for Secured Body Sensor Networks. Sensors 2011, 11, 5835-5849.
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7992; doi:10.3390/s110807992
Received: 8 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
PDF Full-text (113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been brought to our attention by a reader of Sensors that substantial portions of this article [1] have been copied from an earlier publication [2] without credit. After confirming this case with the authors, we have determined that indeed this manuscript
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It has been brought to our attention by a reader of Sensors that substantial portions of this article [1] have been copied from an earlier publication [2] without credit. After confirming this case with the authors, we have determined that indeed this manuscript clearly violates our policy on originality of all material submitted for publication and the generally accepted ethics of scientific publication. Consequently, the Editorial Team and Publisher have determined that it should be retracted. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. Full article

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