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Special Issue "Optical Resonant Microsensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yeshaiahu Fainman (Website)

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Interests: biosensing; nanophotonics; optofluidics; nanoplasmonics; quantum/classical information processing; nanolithography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical resonant sensors utilizing optical feedback in a resonator or resonant wave-coupling to achieve “longer” interaction length for enhanced sensitivity have been developed for many years. The feedback mechanism in such resonant geometries as microcavity in a photonic crystal lattice, microring, microsphere, microtoroid and microdisk have been employed for shaping resonant transmission or reflection spectrum with the objective to enhance its spectral resolution. A complementary approach uses surface plasmon-polariton resonance (SPR) phenomena for sensing applications. In SPR sensor, an evanescently coupled optical field resonantly excites a surface plasmon-polariton wave which is employed to monitor the metal-dielectric interface by monitoring the resonantly transmitted or reflected light which provide comparable sensor sensitivity. Recent advance in micro/nano fabrication technology allows for miniaturization and cost-effective manufacturing of such optical resonant sensor devices with retained sensing sensitivity. Moreover, chip-scale integration of microfluidics with optics will enable analyte preparation and delivery for optical interrogation by photonic integrated circuit that include light source, light guiding, manipulation, optical resonant sensor and detection elements. Ideal biosensor not only will maximize the optical localization (i.e., localize the electromagnetic energy in a small mode volume) but also enforce maximal overlap between this localized field and the volume of biomolecular interactions. Furthermore, because of its smaller footprint dimensions, large array of sensors can be made on the single sensor chip allowing to perform high throughput monitoring and detection to realize multiple sensing modalities and improve detection accuracy and specificity. Various potential applications such as label-free immunoassays, chemical sensors, and precision temperature and pressure measurements will benefit from the developments of resonant microsensor. , as well as analyte or sample delivery subsystem, plus traditional chip capability of the data acquisition, processing and analysis have enable such optical optical resonant microsensors.

Prof. Dr. Yeshaiahu (Shaya) Fainman
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • optical resonator
  • plasmon resonance
  • resonant cavity
  • microcavity
  • surface plasmon resonance
  • nanoplasmonic sensor
  • whispering-gallery mode
  • high Q-factor resonant microsensor
  • photonic crystal resonator
  • waveguide resonator
  • microtoroidal structure
  • microsensor chip
  • microring
  • microdisk
  • microsphere
  • microfluidic
  • protein chips
  • immunochips
  • microarrays
  • immunosensors

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor
Sensors 2011, 11(8), 8060-8071; doi:10.3390/s110808060
Received: 16 July 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this [...] Read more.
Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM) layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs). The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
Open AccessArticle Nanofluidic Refractive-Index Sensors Formed by Nanocavity Resonators in Metals without Plasmons
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2939-2945; doi:10.3390/s110302939
Received: 28 January 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 3 March 2011 / Published: 4 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocavity resonators in metals acting as nanofluidic refractive-index sensors were analyzed theoretically. With the illumination of transverse electric polarized light, the proposed refractive index sensor structure acts as a pure electromagnetic resonator without the excitation of surface plasmons. The reflected signal from [...] Read more.
Nanocavity resonators in metals acting as nanofluidic refractive-index sensors were analyzed theoretically. With the illumination of transverse electric polarized light, the proposed refractive index sensor structure acts as a pure electromagnetic resonator without the excitation of surface plasmons. The reflected signal from the nanocavity resonators can be very sensitive to the refractive index of the fluids inside the nanocavities due to the enhancement of the electric field of the resonant mode inside the cavities. Such a sensor configuration can be a useful tool for probing the refractive index change of the fluid inside the nanocavities using the spectral, angular or intensity interrogation schemes. The wavelength sensitivity of 430 nm/RIU, angular sensitivity of 200–1,000 deg/RIU and intensity sensitivity of 25.5 RIU−1 can be achieved in the proposed sensor configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sub-Micron Particle Based Structures as Reconfigurable Photonic Devices Controllable by External Photonic and Magnetic Fields
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2740-2750; doi:10.3390/s110302740
Received: 28 January 2011 / Revised: 10 February 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2011 / Published: 2 March 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present the configurations of two nanometer scale structures—one of them optically controllable and the second one magnetically controllable. The first involves an array of nanoparticles that are made up of two layers (i.e., Au on top [...] Read more.
In this paper we present the configurations of two nanometer scale structures—one of them optically controllable and the second one magnetically controllable. The first involves an array of nanoparticles that are made up of two layers (i.e., Au on top of a Si layer). The device may exhibits a wide range of plasmonic resonance according to external photonic radiation. The second type of device involves the usage of sub micron superparamagnetic particles located on a suitable structuring grid, that according to the angle of the external magnetic field allows control of the length of the structuring grid and therefore control the diffraction order of each wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
Open AccessArticle Laser Chemosensor with Rapid Responsivity and Inherent Memory Based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2478-2487; doi:10.3390/s110302478
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 1 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work explores the use of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) as the active layer within a laser sensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors. We show successful detection of dinitrobenzene (DNB) by monitoring the real-time photoluminescence. We also show that PIM-1 [...] Read more.
This work explores the use of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) as the active layer within a laser sensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors. We show successful detection of dinitrobenzene (DNB) by monitoring the real-time photoluminescence. We also show that PIM-1 has an inherent memory, so that it accumulates the analyte during exposure. In addition, the optical gain and refractive index of the polymer were studied by amplified spontaneous emission and variable-angle ellipsometry, respectively. A second-order distributed feedback PIM-1 laser sensor was fabricated and found to show an increase in laser threshold of 2.5 times and a reduction of the laser slope efficiency by 4.4 times after a 5-min exposure to the DNB vapor. For pumping at 2 times threshold, the lasing action was stopped within 30 s indicating that PIM-1 has a very fast responsivity and as such has a potential sensing ability for ultra-low-concentration explosives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Resonant Photonic Biosensors with Polarization-Based Multiparametric Discrimination in Each Channel
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1476-1488; doi:10.3390/s110201476
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we describe guided-mode resonance biochemical sensor technology. We briefly discuss sensor fabrication and show measured binding dynamics for example biomaterials in use in our laboratories. We then turn our attention to a particularly powerful attribute of this technology not [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe guided-mode resonance biochemical sensor technology. We briefly discuss sensor fabrication and show measured binding dynamics for example biomaterials in use in our laboratories. We then turn our attention to a particularly powerful attribute of this technology not possessed by competing methods. This attribute is the facile generation of multiple resonance peaks at an identical physical location on the sensor surface. These peaks respond uniquely to the biomolecular event, thereby enriching the data set available for event quantification. The peaks result from individual, polarization-dependent resonant leaky modes that are the foundation of this technology. Thus, by modeling the binding event and fitting to a rigorous electromagnetic formalism, we can determine individual attributes of the biolayer and its surroundings and avoid a separate reference site for background monitoring. Examples provide dual-polarization quantification of biotin binding to a silane-coated sensor as well as binding of the cancer biomarker protein calreticulin to its monoclonal IgG capture antibody. Finally, we present dual-polarization resonance response for poly (allylamine hydrochloride) binding to the sensor with corresponding results of backfitting to a simple model; this differentiates the contributions from biolayer adhesion and background changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1297-1320; doi:10.3390/s110201297
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, [...] Read more.
A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1–5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ~9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Miniature Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Built in a MEMS-Based Microchannel
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 1078-1087; doi:10.3390/s110101078
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A small, highly sensitive, and electromagnetic interference (EMI)-immune refractive index (RI) sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer is presented. The sensor’s FP cavity was fabricated by aligning two metal-deposited, single-mode optical fiber endfaces inside a microchannel on a silicon chip. The [...] Read more.
A small, highly sensitive, and electromagnetic interference (EMI)-immune refractive index (RI) sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer is presented. The sensor’s FP cavity was fabricated by aligning two metal-deposited, single-mode optical fiber endfaces inside a microchannel on a silicon chip. The mirrors on the fiber endfaces were made of thermal-deposited metal films, which provided the high finesse necessary to produce a highly sensitive sensor. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques, specifically photolithography and deep dry etching, were used to precisely control the profile and depth of the microchannel on the silicon chip with an accuracy of 2 μm. The RI change within the FP cavity was determined by demodulating the transmission spectrum phase shift. The sensitivity and finesse of the transmission spectrum were controlled by adjusting the cavity length and the thickness of the deposited metal. Our experimental results showed that the sensor’s sensitivity was 665.90 nm/RIU (RI Unit), and the limit of detection was 6 × 10−6 RIU. Using MEMS fabrication techniques to fabricate these sensors could make high yield mass production a real possibility. Multiple sensors could be integrated on a single small silicon chip to simultaneously measure RI, temperature, and biomolecule targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9808-9830; doi:10.3390/s101109808
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 10 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced [...] Read more.
This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer) upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Bioconjugation Strategies for Microtoroidal Optical Resonators
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9317-9336; doi:10.3390/s101009317
Received: 14 September 2010 / Revised: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (1158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of label-free biosensors with high sensitivity and specificity is of significant interest for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring, where rapid and real-time detection of antigens, bacteria, viruses, etc., is necessary. Optical resonant devices, which have very high sensitivity resulting [...] Read more.
The development of label-free biosensors with high sensitivity and specificity is of significant interest for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring, where rapid and real-time detection of antigens, bacteria, viruses, etc., is necessary. Optical resonant devices, which have very high sensitivity resulting from their low optical loss, are uniquely suited to sensing applications. However, previous research efforts in this area have focused on the development of the sensor itself. While device sensitivity is an important feature of a sensor, specificity is an equally, if not more, important performance parameter. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a covalent surface functionalization process, which also maintains the device’s sensing capabilities or optical qualities. Here, we demonstrate a facile method to impart specificity to optical microcavities, without adversely impacting their optical performance. In this approach, we selectively functionalize the surface of the silica microtoroids with biotin, using amine-terminated silane coupling agents as linkers. The surface chemistry of these devices is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescent and optical microscopy. The quality factors of the surface functionalized devices are also characterized to determine the impact of the chemistry methods on the device sensitivity. The resulting devices show uniform surface coverage, with no microstructural damage. This work represents one of the first examples of non-physisorption-based bioconjugation of microtoroidal optical resonators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Metal Enhanced Evanescent-Wave Microcavities
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8751-8760; doi:10.3390/s100908751
Received: 27 July 2010 / Revised: 9 September 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 21 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the concept of storing optical energy using a metallic air gap microcavity. Evanescent waves are stored in the air gap of a dielectric/metal/air gap/metal planar microcavity. For an air gap with a micron scale distance between the two metals, [...] Read more.
This article presents the concept of storing optical energy using a metallic air gap microcavity. Evanescent waves are stored in the air gap of a dielectric/metal/air gap/metal planar microcavity. For an air gap with a micron scale distance between the two metals, incident light excites the optical interface modes on the two metal-air interfaces simultaneously, being accompanied by enhanced evanescent fields. Numerical simulations show that the reflected light depends remarkably upon distributions of the enhanced electric fields in the air-gap at the optical mode excitations. The metallic microcavities have a Q value on the order of 102, as determined from calculations. Experimentally, a small mechanical variation of the air-gap distance exhibited a change of reflectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2195-2245; doi:10.3390/s110202195
Received: 21 January 2011 / Revised: 31 January 2011 / Accepted: 9 February 2011 / Published: 15 February 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessReview Optical Microcavity: Sensing down to Single Molecules and Atoms
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1972-1991; doi:10.3390/s110201972
Received: 16 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 27 January 2011 / Published: 7 February 2011
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q) factor are altered as a means of detecting a [...] Read more.
This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q) factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments), microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessReview Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1565-1588; doi:10.3390/s110201565
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
Cited by 154 | PDF Full-text (1992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of bio-chemical sensing devices has been greatly improved by the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensors. Advancements in micro- and nano-fabrication technologies have led to a variety of structures in SPR sensing systems being proposed. In this review, [...] Read more.
The performance of bio-chemical sensing devices has been greatly improved by the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensors. Advancements in micro- and nano-fabrication technologies have led to a variety of structures in SPR sensing systems being proposed. In this review, SPR sensors (from typical Kretschmann prism configurations to fiber sensor schemes) with micro- or nano-structures for local light field enhancement, extraordinary optical transmission, interference of surface plasmon waves, plasmonic cavities, etc. are discussed. We summarize and compare their performances and present guidelines for the design of SPR sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessReview Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 785-805; doi:10.3390/s110100785
Received: 8 December 2010 / Revised: 28 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided [...] Read more.
Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Yoshie, T. et al. Optical Microcavity: Sensing downto Single Molecules and Atoms. Sensors 2011, 11, 1972-1991
Sensors 2011, 11(6), 6493; doi:10.3390/s110606493
Received: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
PDF Full-text (29 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The coefficient of the expression of Equation (6) was not properly written. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)

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