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Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7954-7981; doi:10.3390/s110807954
Review

Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies

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Received: 18 July 2011; in revised form: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Abstract: This paper reviews the currently available optical sensors, their limitations and opportunities for deployment at Eddy Covariance (EC) sites in Europe. This review is based on the results obtained from an online survey designed and disseminated by the Co-cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ESO903—“Spectral Sampling Tools for Vegetation Biophysical Parameters and Flux Measurements in Europe” that provided a complete view on spectral sampling activities carried out within the different research teams in European countries. The results have highlighted that a wide variety of optical sensors are in use at flux sites across Europe, and responses further demonstrated that users were not always fully aware of the key issues underpinning repeatability and the reproducibility of their spectral measurements. The key findings of this survey point towards the need for greater awareness of the need for standardisation and development of a common protocol of optical sampling at the European EC sites.
Keywords: optical measurements; sensors; protocol standardisation; European flux networks optical measurements; sensors; protocol standardisation; European flux networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Balzarolo, M.; Anderson, K.; Nichol, C.; Rossini, M.; Vescovo, L.; Arriga, N.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Calvet, J.-C.; Carrara, A.; Cerasoli, S.; Cogliati, S.; Daumard, F.; Eklundh, L.; Elbers, J.A.; Evrendilek, F.; Handcock, R.N.; Kaduk, J.; Klumpp, K.; Longdoz, B.; Matteucci, G.; Meroni, M.; Montagnani, L.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Sánchez-Cañete, E.P.; Pontailler, J.-Y.; Juszczak, R.; Scholes, B.; Martín, M.P. Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies. Sensors 2011, 11, 7954-7981.

AMA Style

Balzarolo M, Anderson K, Nichol C, Rossini M, Vescovo L, Arriga N, Wohlfahrt G, Calvet J-C, Carrara A, Cerasoli S, Cogliati S, Daumard F, Eklundh L, Elbers JA, Evrendilek F, Handcock RN, Kaduk J, Klumpp K, Longdoz B, Matteucci G, Meroni M, Montagnani L, Ourcival J-M, Sánchez-Cañete EP, Pontailler J-Y, Juszczak R, Scholes B, Martín MP. Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies. Sensors. 2011; 11(8):7954-7981.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balzarolo, Manuela; Anderson, Karen; Nichol, Caroline; Rossini, Micol; Vescovo, Loris; Arriga, Nicola; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Carrara, Arnaud; Cerasoli, Sofia; Cogliati, Sergio; Daumard, Fabrice; Eklundh, Lars; Elbers, Jan A.; Evrendilek, Fatih; Handcock, Rebecca N.; Kaduk, Jörg; Klumpp, Katja; Longdoz, Bernard; Matteucci, Giorgio; Meroni, Michele; Montagnani, Lenoardo; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Pontailler, Jean-Yves; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Scholes, Bob; Martín, M. Pilar. 2011. "Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies." Sensors 11, no. 8: 7954-7981.



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