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Sensors, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-1011

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Open AccessArticle A Novel Bioinspired PVDF Micro/Nano Hair Receptor for a Robot Sensing System
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 994-1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100994
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 15 December 2009 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the concept and design of a novel artificial hair receptor for the sensing system of micro intelligent robots such as a cricket-like jumping mini robot. The concept is inspired from the natural hair receptor of animals, also called cilium or
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This paper describes the concept and design of a novel artificial hair receptor for the sensing system of micro intelligent robots such as a cricket-like jumping mini robot. The concept is inspired from the natural hair receptor of animals, also called cilium or filiform hair by different research groups, which is usually used as a vibration receptor or a flow detector by insects, mammals and fishes. The suspended fiber model is firstly built and the influence of scaling down is analyzed theoretically. The design of this artificial hair receptor is based on aligned suspended PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) fibers, manufactures with a novel method called thermo-direct drawing technique, and aligned suspended submicron diameter fibers are thus successfully fabricated on a flexible Kapton. In the post process step, some key problems such as separated electrodes deposition along with the fiber drawing direction and poling of micro/nano fibers to impart them with good piezoeffective activity have been presented. The preliminary validation experiments show that the artificial hair receptor has a reliable response with good sensibility to external pressure variation and, medium flow as well as its prospects in the application on sensing system of mini/micro bio-robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Actuators)
Open AccessReview Nanomaterials as Analytical Tools for Genosensors
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 963-993; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100963
Received: 12 December 2009 / Revised: 8 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials are being increasingly used for the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors, due to the unique electrocatalytic properties found in nanoscale materials. They offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction and for designing a new generation of bioelectronic
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Nanomaterials are being increasingly used for the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors, due to the unique electrocatalytic properties found in nanoscale materials. They offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction and for designing a new generation of bioelectronic devices exhibiting novel functions. In particular, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pt), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots and metal oxide nanoparticles have been actively investigated for their applications in DNA biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. In this article, we address some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, discussing the issues and challenges with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing nanomaterial-based biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis and food safety examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Improving the Response of Accelerometers for Automotive Applications by Using LMS Adaptive Filters: Part II
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 952-962; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100952
Received: 22 December 2009 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the fast least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to both eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications, and improve the convergence rate of the filtering process based on the conventional LMS algorithm. The response
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In this paper, the fast least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to both eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications, and improve the convergence rate of the filtering process based on the conventional LMS algorithm. The response of the accelerometer under test was corrupted by process and measurement noise, and the signal processing stage was carried out by using both conventional filtering, which was already shown in a previous paper, and optimal adaptive filtering. The adaptive filtering process relied on the LMS adaptive filtering family, which has shown to have very good convergence and robustness properties, and here a comparative analysis between the results of the application of the conventional LMS algorithm and the fast LMS algorithm to solve a real-life filtering problem was carried out. In short, in this paper the piezoresistive accelerometer was tested for a multi-frequency acceleration excitation. Due to the kind of test conducted in this paper, the use of conventional filtering was discarded and the choice of one adaptive filter over the other was based on the signal-to-noise ratio improvement and the convergence rate. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Device for Automatically Measuring and Supervising the Critical Care Patient’S Urine Output
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 934-951; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100934
Received: 14 December 2009 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Critical care units are equipped with commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing patients’ physiological parameters and supervising the achievement of the established therapeutic goals. This avoids human errors in this task and considerably decreases the workload of the healthcare staff. However, at present
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Critical care units are equipped with commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing patients’ physiological parameters and supervising the achievement of the established therapeutic goals. This avoids human errors in this task and considerably decreases the workload of the healthcare staff. However, at present there still is a very relevant physiological parameter that is measured and supervised manually by the critical care units’ healthcare staff: urine output. This paper presents a patent-pending device capable of automatically recording and supervising the urine output of a critical care patient. A high precision scale is used to measure the weight of a commercial urine meter. On the scale’s pan there is a support frame made up of Bosch profiles that isolates the scale from force transmission from the patient’s bed, and guarantees that the urine flows properly through the urine meter input tube. The scale’s readings are sent to a PC via Bluetooth where an application supervises the achievement of the therapeutic goals. The device is currently undergoing tests at a research unit associated with the University Hospital of Getafe in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Dong, J. et al. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Development Suitability Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques–A Case Study in Jingjinji Area, China. Sensors 2008, 8, 5975–5986
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100933
Received: 25 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
PDF Full-text (27 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We found that formula (1) was incorrect in our paper published in Sensors in 2008 [1]. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Large Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Using a Geostatistical Method
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 913-932; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100913
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial and temporal soil moisture dynamics are critically needed to improve the parameterization for hydrological and meteorological modeling processes. This study evaluates the statistical spatial structure of large-scale observed and simulated estimates of soil moisture under pre- and post-precipitation event conditions. This large
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Spatial and temporal soil moisture dynamics are critically needed to improve the parameterization for hydrological and meteorological modeling processes. This study evaluates the statistical spatial structure of large-scale observed and simulated estimates of soil moisture under pre- and post-precipitation event conditions. This large scale variability is a crucial in calibration and validation of large-scale satellite based data assimilation systems. Spatial analysis using geostatistical approaches was used to validate modeled soil moisture by the Agriculture Meteorological (AGRMET) model using in situ measurements of soil moisture from a state-wide environmental monitoring network (Oklahoma Mesonet). The results show that AGRMET data produces larger spatial decorrelation compared to in situ based soil moisture data. The precipitation storms drive the soil moisture spatial structures at large scale, found smaller decorrelation length after precipitation. This study also evaluates the geostatistical approach for mitigation for quality control issues within in situ soil moisture network to estimates at soil moisture at unsampled stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 901-912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100901
Received: 29 October 2009 / Revised: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron
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The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Pterins as Sensors of Response to the Application of Fe3+-Dextran in Piglets
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 890-900; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100890
Received: 16 November 2009 / Revised: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe3+-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a
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The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe3+-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a traditional hormonal biosensor of the stress response. Pterins (neopterin and biopterin) in the piglets' blood serum were analyzed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC. A single dose of Fe3+-dextran produced a special stress situation in the piglets' organism which manifested itself by an increased production of neopterin (p < 0.05) and biopterin (p < 0.01) in the experimental piglets. Changes in cortisol concentrations and leukocyte counts were influenced by handling stress and were not specifically correlated to iron dextran application. Iron concentrations in the internal environment of the experimental piglets’ group were higher by an order of magnitude compared with the controls, and the highest serum concentrations of iron (p < 0.01) were reached 24 h following Fe3+-dextran administration. The data presented offer a new perspective on the evaluation of stress situations in the animal organism and, not least importantly, extends the rather modest current list of references on the role of pterins in livestock animals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Microimmunosensor
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 876-889; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100876
Received: 31 December 2009 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to
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Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to generate a siloxane surface that provided a scaffold for antibody immobilization. AlexaFluor-cadaverine-trinitrobenzene (AlexaFluor-Cad-TNB) was used as the reporter molecule in a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was 1-10 ng/mL (ppb) with a linear dynamic range that covered three orders of magnitude. In addition, antibody crossreactivity was investigated using hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), HMX, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT) and 2-amino-4,6-DNT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Vision-Based Traffic Data Collection Sensor for Automotive Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 860-875; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100860
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in
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This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intelligent Sensors Security
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 822-859; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100822
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a
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The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effective Route Maintenance and Restoration Schemes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 808-821; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100808
Received: 13 January 2010 / Revised: 18 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore
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This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle The Non-linear Relationship between Muscle Voluntary Activation Level and Voluntary Force Measured by the Interpolated Twitch Technique
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 796-807; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100796
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 8 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is a non-invasive method for assessing the completeness of muscle activation in clinical settings. Voluntary activation level (VA), measured by ITT and estimated by a conventional linear model, was reported to have a non-linear relationship with true voluntary contraction
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Interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is a non-invasive method for assessing the completeness of muscle activation in clinical settings. Voluntary activation level (VA), measured by ITT and estimated by a conventional linear model, was reported to have a non-linear relationship with true voluntary contraction force at higher activation levels. The relationship needs to be further clarified for the correct use by clinicians and researchers. This study was to established a modified voluntary activation (modified VA) and define a valid range by fitting a non-linear logistic growth model. Eight healthy male adults participated in this study. Each subject performed three sets of voluntary isometric ankle plantar flexions at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with real-time feedback on a computer screen. A supramaximal electrical stimulation was applied on tibia nerve at rest and during contractions. The estimated VA was calculated for each contraction. The relationship between the estimated VA and the actual voluntary contraction force was fitted by a logistic growth model. The result showed that according to the upper and lower limit points of the logistic curve, the valid range was between the 95.16% and 10.55% MVC. The modified VA estimated by this logistic growth model demonstrated less error than the conventional model. This study provided a transfer function for the voluntary activation level and defined the valid range which would provide useful information in clinical applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview Statistical Modeling of SAR Images: A Survey
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 775-795; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100775
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 102 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism,
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Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Nanopore Structured High Performance Toluene Gas Sensor Made by Nanoimprinting Method
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 765-774; https://doi.org/10.3390/s100100765
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70~80 nm using this method.
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Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70~80 nm using this method. This thin film had a Pd/TiO2 nanoporous/SiO2/Si MIS layered structure with Pd-TiO2 as the catalytic sensing layer. The nanoimprinting method was useful in expanding the TiO2 surface area by about 30%, as confirmed using AFM and SEM imaging. The measured toluene concentrations ranged from 50 ppm to 200 ppm. The toluene was easily detected by changing the Pd/TiO2 interface work function, resulting in a change in the I-V characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
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