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The Non-linear Relationship between Muscle Voluntary Activation Level and Voluntary Force Measured by the Interpolated Twitch Technique
Physical Therapy Department and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Chang Gung University, 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Rd, Kweishan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Department of Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Department of Statistics, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science and Technology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2009; in revised form: 8 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Abstract: Interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is a non-invasive method for assessing the completeness of muscle activation in clinical settings. Voluntary activation level (VA), measured by ITT and estimated by a conventional linear model, was reported to have a non-linear relationship with true voluntary contraction force at higher activation levels. The relationship needs to be further clarified for the correct use by clinicians and researchers. This study was to established a modified voluntary activation (modified VA) and define a valid range by fitting a non-linear logistic growth model. Eight healthy male adults participated in this study. Each subject performed three sets of voluntary isometric ankle plantar flexions at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with real-time feedback on a computer screen. A supramaximal electrical stimulation was applied on tibia nerve at rest and during contractions. The estimated VA was calculated for each contraction. The relationship between the estimated VA and the actual voluntary contraction force was fitted by a logistic growth model. The result showed that according to the upper and lower limit points of the logistic curve, the valid range was between the 95.16% and 10.55% MVC. The modified VA estimated by this logistic growth model demonstrated less error than the conventional model. This study provided a transfer function for the voluntary activation level and defined the valid range which would provide useful information in clinical applications.
Keywords: interpolated twitch technique; voluntary activation; logistic growth model; superimposed electrical stimulation
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Huang, Y.-M.; Hsu, M.-J.; Lin, C.-H.; Wei, S.-H.; Chang, Y.-J. The Non-linear Relationship between Muscle Voluntary Activation Level and Voluntary Force Measured by the Interpolated Twitch Technique. Sensors 2010, 10, 796-807.
Huang Y-M, Hsu M-J, Lin C-H, Wei S-H, Chang Y-J. The Non-linear Relationship between Muscle Voluntary Activation Level and Voluntary Force Measured by the Interpolated Twitch Technique. Sensors. 2010; 10(1):796-807.
Huang, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju. 2010. "The Non-linear Relationship between Muscle Voluntary Activation Level and Voluntary Force Measured by the Interpolated Twitch Technique." Sensors 10, no. 1: 796-807.