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Special Issue "Gas Sensors 2009"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. JinJun Shi

Department of Chemical Engineering, E18-668, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA
E-Mail
Interests: Gas Sensors

Keywords

  • gas sensors
  • gas detection
  • gas analysis

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Nanopore Structured High Performance Toluene Gas Sensor Made by Nanoimprinting Method
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 765-774; doi:10.3390/s100100765
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70~80 nm using this method.
[...] Read more.
Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70~80 nm using this method. This thin film had a Pd/TiO2 nanoporous/SiO2/Si MIS layered structure with Pd-TiO2 as the catalytic sensing layer. The nanoimprinting method was useful in expanding the TiO2 surface area by about 30%, as confirmed using AFM and SEM imaging. The measured toluene concentrations ranged from 50 ppm to 200 ppm. The toluene was easily detected by changing the Pd/TiO2 interface work function, resulting in a change in the I-V characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Electrosprayed Metal Oxide Semiconductor Films for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9122-9132; doi:10.3390/s91109122
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2), tungsten oxide (WO3) and indium oxide (In2O3) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with
[...] Read more.
Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2), tungsten oxide (WO3) and indium oxide (In2O3) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows porous homogeneous films comprising uniformly distributed aggregates of nano particles. The X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) proves the formation of crystalline phases with no impurities. Besides, the Raman cartographies provided information about the structural homogeneity. Some of the films are highly sensitive to low concentrations of H2S (10 ppm) at low operating temperatures (100 and 200 °C) and the best response in terms of Rair/Rgas is given by Cu-SnO2 films (2500) followed by WO3 (1200) and In2O3 (75). Moreover, all the films exhibit no cross-sensitivity to other reducing (SO2) or oxidizing (NO2) gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Selective Detection of Formaldehyde Gas Using a Cd-Doped TiO2-SnO2 Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9029-9038; doi:10.3390/s91109029
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 28 October 2009 / Accepted: 29 October 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the microstructure and gas-sensing properties of a nonequilibrium TiO2-SnO2 solid solution prepared by the sol-gel method. In particular, we focus on the effect of Cd doping on the sensing behavior of the TiO2-SnO2 sensor. Of
[...] Read more.
We report the microstructure and gas-sensing properties of a nonequilibrium TiO2-SnO2 solid solution prepared by the sol-gel method. In particular, we focus on the effect of Cd doping on the sensing behavior of the TiO2-SnO2 sensor. Of all volatile organic compound gases examined, the sensor with Cd doping exhibits exclusive selectivity as well as high sensitivity to formaldehyde, a main harmful indoor gas. The key gas-sensing quantities, maximum sensitivity, optimal working temperature, and response and recovery time, are found to meet the basic industrial needs. This makes the Cd-doped TiO2-SnO2 composite a promising sensor material for detecting the formaldehyde gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Neural Network-Based Technique for Smart Gas Sensors Operating in a Dynamic Environment
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8944-8960; doi:10.3390/s91108944
Received: 9 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these
[...] Read more.
Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these problems. The idea is to create intelligent models; the first one, called corrector, can automatically linearize a sensor’s response characteristics and eliminate its dependency on the environmental parameters. The corrector’s responses are processed with the second intelligent model which has the role of discriminating exactly the detected gas (nature and concentration). The gas sensors used are industrial resistive kind (TGS8xx, by Figaro Engineering). The MATLAB environment is used during the design phase and optimization. The sensor models, the corrector, and the selective model were implemented and tested in the PSPICE simulator. The sensor model accurately expresses the nonlinear character of the response and the dependence on temperature and relative humidity in addition to their gas nature dependency. The corrector linearizes and compensates the sensor’s responses. The method discriminates qualitatively and quantitatively between seven gases. The advantage of the method is that it uses a small representative database so we can easily implement the model in an electrical simulator. This method can be extended to other sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Figures

Open AccessArticle H2 Sensing Response of Flame-spray-made Ru/SnO2 Thick Films Fabricated from Spin-Coated Nanoparticles
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8996-9010; doi:10.3390/s91108996
Received: 7 August 2009 / Revised: 21 October 2009 / Accepted: 22 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High specific surface area (SSABET: 141.6 m2/g) SnO2 nanoparticles doped with 0.2–3 wt% Ru were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The specific
[...] Read more.
High specific surface area (SSABET: 141.6 m2/g) SnO2 nanoparticles doped with 0.2–3 wt% Ru were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The specific surface area (SSABET) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). As the Ru concentration increased, the SSABET was found to linearly decrease, while the average BET-equivalent particle diameter (dBET) increased. FSP yielded small Ru particles attached to the surface of the supporting SnO2 nanoparticles, indicating a high SSABET. The morphology and accurate size of the primary particles were further investigated by TEM. The crystallite sizes of the spherical, hexagonal, and rectangular SnO2 particles were in the range of 3–10 nm. SnO2 nanorods were found to range from 3–5 nm in width and 5–20 nm in length. Sensing films were prepared by the spin coating technique. The gas sensing of H2 (500–10,000 ppm) was studied at the operating temperatures ranging from 200–350 °C in presence of dry air. After the sensing tests, the morphology and the cross-section of sensing film were analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses. The 0.2%Ru-dispersed on SnO2 sensing film showed the highest sensitivity and a very fast response time (6 s) compared to a pure SnO2 sensing film, with a highest H2 concentration of 1 vol% at 350 °C and a low H2 detection limit of 500 ppm at 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of SOI Raman Lasers for Mid-Infrared Gas Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7814-7836; doi:10.3390/s91007814
Received: 30 July 2009 / Revised: 16 September 2009 / Accepted: 25 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the investigation and detailed modeling of a cascaded Raman laser, operating in the midwave infrared region, is described. The device is based on silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides and a coupled resonant microcavity. Theoretical results are compared with recent experiments, demonstrating a
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the investigation and detailed modeling of a cascaded Raman laser, operating in the midwave infrared region, is described. The device is based on silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides and a coupled resonant microcavity. Theoretical results are compared with recent experiments, demonstrating a very good agreement. Design criteria are derived for cascaded Raman lasers working as continuous wave light sources to simultaneously sense two types of gases, namely C2H6 and CO2, at a moderate power level of 130 mW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7866-7902; doi:10.3390/s91007866
Received: 28 July 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and
[...] Read more.
A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7498-7508; doi:10.3390/s90907498
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 15 September 2009 / Accepted: 18 September 2009 / Published: 18 September 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough
[...] Read more.
Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Two Thick Film Deposition Methods on Tin Dioxide Gas Sensor Performance
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6853-6868; doi:10.3390/s90906853
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 26 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 August 2009 / Published: 31 August 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were
[...] Read more.
This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition method. Sensor performance at a fixed operating temperature of 330 ºC for the different film deposition methods was evaluated by exposure to 500 ppm of the target gas carbon monoxide. A consequence of the poor film structure, large variability and poor signal properties were observed with the sensors fabricated using binders. Specifically, the sensors created using the binder recipes yielded sensor responses that varied widely (e.g., S = 5 – 20), often with hysteresis in the sensor signal. Repeatable and high quality performance was observed for the sensors prepared using the binder-less dispersion-drop method with good sensor response upon exposure to 500 ppm CO (S = 4.0) at an operating temperature of 330 ºC, low standard deviation to the sensor response (±0.35) and no signal hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Preparation, Characterization and Sensitive Gas Sensing of Conductive Core-sheath TiO2-PEDOT Nanocables
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6752-6763; doi:10.3390/s90906752
Received: 10 August 2009 / Revised: 20 August 2009 / Accepted: 21 August 2009 / Published: 27 August 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conductive core-sheath TiO2-PEDOT nanocables were prepared using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers as template, followed by vapor phase polymerization of EDOT. Various techniques were employed to characterize the sample. The results reveal that the TiO2 core has an average diameter of ~78
[...] Read more.
Conductive core-sheath TiO2-PEDOT nanocables were prepared using electrospun TiO2 nanofibers as template, followed by vapor phase polymerization of EDOT. Various techniques were employed to characterize the sample. The results reveal that the TiO2 core has an average diameter of ~78 nm while the PEDOT sheath has a uniform thickness of ~6 nm. The as-prepared TiO2-PEDOT nanocables display a fast and reversible response to gaseous NO2 and NH3 with a limit of detection as low as 7 ppb and 675 ppb (S/N=3), respectively. This study provides a route for the synthesis of conductive nanostructures which show excellent performance for sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Gas Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Fibres in the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 Vibrational Bands of Methane
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6261-6272; doi:10.3390/s90806261
Received: 10 July 2009 / Revised: 3 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 10 August 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, methane detection is performed on the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 absorption bands in the Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength region using an all-fibre optical sensor. Hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres (HC-PBFs) are employed as gas cells due
[...] Read more.
In this work, methane detection is performed on the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 absorption bands in the Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength region using an all-fibre optical sensor. Hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres (HC-PBFs) are employed as gas cells due to their compactness, good integrability in optical systems and feasibility of long interaction lengths with gases. Sensing in the 2ν3 band of methane is demonstrated to achieve a detection limit one order of magnitude better than that of the ν2 + 2ν3 band. Finally, the filling time of a HC-PBF is demonstrated to be dependent on the fibre length and geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Real-Time Ozone Detection Based on a Microfabricated Quartz Crystal Tuning Fork Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5655-5663; doi:10.3390/s90705655
Received: 5 June 2009 / Revised: 8 July 2009 / Accepted: 14 July 2009 / Published: 15 July 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A chemical sensor for ozone based on an array of microfabricated tuning forks is described. The tuning forks are highly sensitive and stable, with low power consumption and cost. The selective detection is based on the specific reaction of the polymer with ozone.
[...] Read more.
A chemical sensor for ozone based on an array of microfabricated tuning forks is described. The tuning forks are highly sensitive and stable, with low power consumption and cost. The selective detection is based on the specific reaction of the polymer with ozone. With a mass detection limit of ~2 pg/mm2 and response time of 1 second, the sensor coated with a polymer sensing material can detect ppb-level ozone in air. The sensor is integrated into a miniaturized wearable device containing a detection circuit, filtration, battery and wireless communication chip, which is ideal for personal and microenvironmental chemical exposure monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle A MEMS-based Benzene Gas Sensor with a Self-heating WO3 Sensing Layer
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2895-2906; doi:10.3390/s90402895
Received: 31 March 2009 / Revised: 17 April 2009 / Accepted: 21 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the study, a MEMS-based benzene gas sensor is presented, consisting of a quartz substrate, a thin-film WO3 sensing layer, an integrated Pt micro-heater, and Pt interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). When benzene is present in the atmosphere, oxidation occurs on the heated WO
[...] Read more.
In the study, a MEMS-based benzene gas sensor is presented, consisting of a quartz substrate, a thin-film WO3 sensing layer, an integrated Pt micro-heater, and Pt interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). When benzene is present in the atmosphere, oxidation occurs on the heated WO3 sensing layer. This causes a change in the electrical conductivity of the WO3 film, and hence changes the resistance between the IDEs. The benzene concentration is then computed from the change in the measured resistance. A specific orientation of the WO3 layer is obtained by optimizing the sputtering process parameters. It is found that the sensitivity of the gas sensor is optimized at a working temperature of 300 °C. At the optimal working temperature, the experimental results show that the sensor has a high degree of sensitivity (1.0 KΩ ppm-1), a low detection limit (0.2 ppm) and a rapid response time (35 s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle A Real-Time De-Noising Algorithm for E-Noses in a Wireless Sensor Network
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 895-908; doi:10.3390/s90200895
Received: 3 December 2008 / Revised: 15 January 2009 / Accepted: 9 February 2009 / Published: 11 February 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless e-nose network system is developed for the special purpose of monitoring odorant gases and accurately estimating odor strength in and around livestock farms. This system is to simultaneously acquire accurate odor strength values remotely at various locations, where each node is
[...] Read more.
A wireless e-nose network system is developed for the special purpose of monitoring odorant gases and accurately estimating odor strength in and around livestock farms. This system is to simultaneously acquire accurate odor strength values remotely at various locations, where each node is an e-nose that includes four metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors. A modified Kalman filtering technique is proposed for collecting raw data and de-noising based on the output noise characteristics of those gas sensors. The measurement noise variance is obtained in real time by data analysis using the proposed slip windows average method. The optimal system noise variance of the filter is obtained by using the experiments data. The Kalman filter theory on how to acquire MOS gas sensors data is discussed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can adjust the Kalman filter parameters and significantly reduce the noise from the gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Manufacture of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Ammonia Sensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 869-880; doi:10.3390/s90200869
Received: 13 December 2008 / Revised: 15 January 2009 / Accepted: 9 February 2009 / Published: 10 February 2009
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and
[...] Read more.
This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and an ammonia sensing film. Polyaniline prepared by a chemical polymerization method was adopted as the ammonia sensing film. The fabrication of the ammonia sensor needs a post-process to etch the sacrificial layers and to expose the sensing resistor, and then the ammonia sensing film is coated on the sensing resistor. The ammonia sensor, which is of resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. A readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance of the ammonia sensor into the voltage output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the ammonia sensor is about 0.88 mV/ppm at room temperature Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 86-101; doi:10.3390/s90100086
Received: 19 November 2008 / Revised: 12 December 2008 / Accepted: 22 December 2008 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several
[...] Read more.
We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Molecular Sensing by Nanoporous Crystalline Polymers
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9816-9857; doi:10.3390/s91209816
Received: 29 September 2009 / Revised: 12 November 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical sensors are generally based on the integration of suitable sensitive layers and transducing mechanisms. Although inorganic porous materials can be effective, there is significant interest in the use of polymeric materials because of their easy fabrication process, lower costs and mechanical flexibility.
[...] Read more.
Chemical sensors are generally based on the integration of suitable sensitive layers and transducing mechanisms. Although inorganic porous materials can be effective, there is significant interest in the use of polymeric materials because of their easy fabrication process, lower costs and mechanical flexibility. However, porous polymeric absorbents are generally amorphous and hence present poor molecular selectivity and undesired changes of mechanical properties as a consequence of large analyte uptake. In this contribution the structure, properties and some possible applications of sensing polymeric films based on nanoporous crystalline phases, which exhibit all identical nanopores, will be reviewed. The main advantages of crystalline nanoporous polymeric materials with respect to their amorphous counterparts are, besides a higher selectivity, the ability to maintain their physical state as well as geometry, even after large guest uptake (up to 10–15 wt%), and the possibility to control guest diffusivity by controlling the orientation of the host polymeric crystalline phase. The final section of the review also describes the ability of suitable polymeric films to act as chirality sensors, i.e., to sense and memorize the presence of non-racemic volatile organic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9196-9215; doi:10.3390/s91109196
Received: 27 September 2009 / Revised: 6 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde
[...] Read more.
Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 8230-8262; doi:10.3390/s91008230
Received: 1 September 2009 / Revised: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 19 October 2009
Cited by 173 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser
[...] Read more.
Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Structure and Sensor Properties of Thin Ordered Solid Films
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7733-7752; doi:10.3390/s91007733
Received: 28 July 2009 / Revised: 9 September 2009 / Accepted: 9 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Miniaturized gas sensors and biosensors based on nanostructured sensing elements have attracted considerable interest because these nanostructured materials can be used to significantly improve sensor sensitivity and the response time. We report here on a generic, reversible sensing platform based on hybrid nanofilms.
[...] Read more.
Miniaturized gas sensors and biosensors based on nanostructured sensing elements have attracted considerable interest because these nanostructured materials can be used to significantly improve sensor sensitivity and the response time. We report here on a generic, reversible sensing platform based on hybrid nanofilms. Thin ordered Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films built of fluorene derivatives were used as effective gas sensors for both oxidative and reductive analytes. A novel immobilization method based on thin LB films as a matrix has been developed for construction of sensing protein layers. Biomolecules can often be incorporated into and immobilized on Langmuir-Blodgett films using adsorption methods or by covalent immobilization of proteins. The sensor sensitisation was achieved by an amphiphilic N-alkyl-bis(thiophene)arylenes admixed into the film. The interlaced derivative was expected to facilitate the electron transfer, thereby enhancing the sensor sensitivity. The results suggest that this may be very promising approach for exploring the interactions between proteins and high throughput detection of phenol derivatives in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology)
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6058-6083; doi:10.3390/s90806058
Received: 7 June 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 14 July 2009 / Published: 30 July 2009
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses”) have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex
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Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses”) have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4669-4694; doi:10.3390/s90604669
Received: 22 April 2009 / Revised: 21 May 2009 / Accepted: 12 June 2009 / Published: 15 June 2009
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio,
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In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
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Open AccessReview Gas Sensors Based on Electrospun Nanofibers
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1609-1624; doi:10.3390/s90301609
Received: 4 February 2009 / Revised: 24 February 2009 / Accepted: 6 February 2009 / Published: 9 March 2009
Cited by 182 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning have specific surface approximately one to two orders of the magnitude larger than flat films, making them excellent candidates for potential applications in sensors. This review is an attempt to give an overview on gas sensors using electrospun nanofibers
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Nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning have specific surface approximately one to two orders of the magnitude larger than flat films, making them excellent candidates for potential applications in sensors. This review is an attempt to give an overview on gas sensors using electrospun nanofibers comprising polyelectrolytes, conducting polymer composites, and semiconductors based on various sensing techniques such as acoustic wave, resistive, photoelectric, and optical techniques. The results of sensing experiments indicate that the nanofiber-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity and quicker responses to target gases, compared with sensors based on flat films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
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