Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2010), Pages 2267-2583

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-19
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Down-Regulation of Telomerase Activity and Activation of Caspase-3 Are Responsible for Tanshinone I-Induced Apoptosis in Monocyte Leukemia Cells in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2267-2280; doi:10.3390/ijms11062267
Received: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tanshinone I (Tan-I) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the traditional herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge . Recently, Tan-I has been reported to have anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of Tan-I on three kinds
[...] Read more.
Tanshinone I (Tan-I) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the traditional herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge . Recently, Tan-I has been reported to have anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of Tan-I on three kinds of monocytic leukemia cells (U937, THP-1 and SHI 1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and AnnexinV/PI staining. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity before and after apoptosis.The activity of caspase-3 was determined by Caspase colorimetric assay kit and Western blot analysis. Expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Survivin was assayed by Western blot and Real-time RT-PCR using the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System. The resultsrevealed that Tan-I could inhibit the growth of these three kinds of leukemia cells and cause apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment by Tan-I for 48 h, Western blotting showed cleavage of the caspase-3 zymogen protein with the appearance of its 17-kD subunit, and a 89-kD cleavage product of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of caspase-3, was also found clearly. The expression of hTERT mRNA as well as activity of telomerase were decreased concurrently in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot revealed a significant down-regulation of Survivin. We therefore conclude that the induction of apoptosis by Tan-I in monocytic leukemia U937 THP-1 and SHI 1 cells is highly correlated with activation of caspase-3 and decreasing of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity as well as down-regulation of Survivin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of Tan-I on monocytic leukemia cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Serum Concentrations of TNF α and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Adrenal Tumors Treated by Surgery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2281-2290; doi:10.3390/ijms11062281
Received: 29 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The peripheral blood levels of TNF α and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy. The concentrations of TNF α were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and
[...] Read more.
The peripheral blood levels of TNF α and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy. The concentrations of TNF α were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control. In patients with non-functioning adenomas and pheochromocytomas, TNF α levels were similar to those detected in the control. In subjects with myelolipomas, the serum concentration of TNF α was lower compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF α were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, non-functioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery. The serum concentrations of soluble receptors of TNF α did not differ among different patient groups and compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the blood concentrations of TNF α R1 and TNF α R2 were decreased in patients with Conn's syndrome. However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF α and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessArticle Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Properties of Peptide Agonists of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2291-2305; doi:10.3390/ijms11062291
Received: 16 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) interact with their cognate ligands, FGFs, and with a number of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), such as the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), mediating a wide range of events during the development and maintenance of the nervous system.
[...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) interact with their cognate ligands, FGFs, and with a number of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), such as the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), mediating a wide range of events during the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Determination of protein structure, in silico modeling and biological studies have recently resulted in the identification of FGFR binding peptides derived from various FGFs and NCAM mimicking the effects of these molecules with regard to their neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on recently developed functional peptide agonists of FGFR with possible therapeutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Temporal and Spatial Expression of Muc1 During Implantation in Sows
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2322-2335; doi:10.3390/ijms11062322
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 4 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 27 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent evidence points to an important role for Muc1 in embryo implantation. In this study, Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to study mRNA and protein levels at, and between, the attachment sites of the endometrium of Day 13, 18 and 24 pregnant
[...] Read more.
Recent evidence points to an important role for Muc1 in embryo implantation. In this study, Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to study mRNA and protein levels at, and between, the attachment sites of the endometrium of Day 13, 18 and 24 pregnant sows. The results indicate that Muc1 mRNA expression was higher between attachment sites than at attachment sites during implantation and this effect was significant on Day 13 (P < 0.01) and 24 (P < 0.01). Intense Muc1 immunostaining was observed in luminal epithelium and stroma and the staining between attachment sites was stronger than at attachment sites on Days 13 and 18. Collectively, these results suggest the crucial role of Muc1 in successful implantation and embryo survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2362-2372; doi:10.3390/ijms11062362
Received: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP
[...] Read more.
Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Open AccessArticle Cloning and Expression of Aspergillus tamarii FS132 Lipase Gene in Pichia pastoris
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2373-2382; doi:10.3390/ijms11062373
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A lipase gene (atl) was cloned from Aspergillustamarii FS132 for the first time. The gene was found to have an open reading frame of 1024 base pairs (bp), and the coding region of the gene contained two introns (51 bp and
[...] Read more.
A lipase gene (atl) was cloned from Aspergillustamarii FS132 for the first time. The gene was found to have an open reading frame of 1024 base pairs (bp), and the coding region of the gene contained two introns (51 bp and 52 bp). Multi-alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated high homology between the enzyme and mono- and diacylglycerol lipases from fungi Aspergillus. The recombinant lipase was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 cells. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, and it exhibited lipase activity of 20 U/mL in culture supernatant when tributyrin was used as the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on Gene Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2383-2392; doi:10.3390/ijms11062383
Received: 26 April 2010 / Revised: 19 May 2010 / Accepted: 1 June 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium dioxide (titania) nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based
[...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide (titania) nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based on mRNA expression analysis. The aggregate particle sizes of small and large aggregated titania were 166 nm (PDI = 0.291) and 596 nm (PDI = 0.417), respectively. These two size groups were separated by centrifugation from the same initial nanoparticle sample. We analyzed the gene expression of biomarkers focused on stress, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. Large titania aggregates show a larger effect on cell viability and gene expression when compared with the small aggregates. This suggests that particle aggregate size is related to cellular effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2393-2420; doi:10.3390/ijms11062393
Received: 14 April 2010 / Revised: 16 May 2010 / Accepted: 30 May 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG) can be
[...] Read more.
Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG) can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2443-2452; doi:10.3390/ijms11062443
Received: 27 April 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with
[...] Read more.
Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Adsorption and Quantum Chemical Studies on the Inhibition Potentials of Some Thiosemicarbazides for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Medium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2473-2498; doi:10.3390/ijms11062473
Received: 8 May 2010 / Revised: 22 May 2010 / Accepted: 23 May 2010 / Published: 15 June 2010
Cited by 80 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three thiosemicarbazides, namely 2-(2-aminophenyl)-N phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (AP4PT), N,2-diphenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (D4PT) and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-N-phenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (HP4PT), were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in H2SO4 solution using gravimetric and gasometric methods. The results revealed that they all inhibit corrosion and their % inhibition efficiencies (%IE) follow
[...] Read more.
Three thiosemicarbazides, namely 2-(2-aminophenyl)-N phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (AP4PT), N,2-diphenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (D4PT) and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-N-phenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (HP4PT), were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in H2SO4 solution using gravimetric and gasometric methods. The results revealed that they all inhibit corrosion and their % inhibition efficiencies (%IE) follow the order: AP4PT > HP4PT > D4PT. The %IE obtained from the gravimetric and gasometric experiments were in good agreement. The thermodynamic parameters obtained support a physical adsorption mechanism and the adsorption followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated using different methods and correlated with the experimental %IE. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach was used on a composite index of some quantum chemical parameters to characterize the inhibition performance of the studied molecules. The results showed that the %IE were closely related to some of the quantum chemical parameters, but with varying degrees. The calculated/theoretical %IE of the molecules were found to be close to their experimental %IE. The local reactivity has been studied through the Fukui and condensed softness indices in order to predict both the reactive centers and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Eco-Contribution for the Production of N-Arylnitrones: Solvent-Free and Assisted by Microwaves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2576-2583; doi:10.3390/ijms11062576
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 June 2010 / Published: 22 June 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (92 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple green approach for the production of benzylideneaniline oxides is offered. This contribution was performed via the condensation of phenylhydroxylamine with several aryl aldehydes, in the absence of both catalyst and solvent, and using microwave irradiation as the activating reaction mode. In
[...] Read more.
A simple green approach for the production of benzylideneaniline oxides is offered. This contribution was performed via the condensation of phenylhydroxylamine with several aryl aldehydes, in the absence of both catalyst and solvent, and using microwave irradiation as the activating reaction mode. In addition, good yields of the products were achieved in a short time. It is also worth noting that the work-up procedure is simple and the products do not require further purification. Finally, an interesting comparison without the use of microwave irradiation is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview An Antiapoptotic Neuroprotective Role for Neuroglobin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2306-2321; doi:10.3390/ijms11062306
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 27 May 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell death associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is common in acute neurological disorders and in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuronal apoptosis is regulated by multiple proteins, including neuroglobin, a small heme protein of ancient origin. Neuroglobin is found in high concentration in some neurons, and its
[...] Read more.
Cell death associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is common in acute neurological disorders and in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuronal apoptosis is regulated by multiple proteins, including neuroglobin, a small heme protein of ancient origin. Neuroglobin is found in high concentration in some neurons, and its high expression has been shown to promote survival of neurons in vitro and to protect brain from damage by both stroke and Alzheimer’s disease in vivo. Early studies suggested this protective role might arise from the protein’s capacity to bind oxygen or react with nitric oxide. Recent data, however, suggests that neither of these functions is likely to be of physiological significance. Other studies have shown that neuroglobin reacts very rapidly with cytochrome c released from mitochondria during cell death, thus interfering with the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Systems level computational modelling suggests that the physiological role of neuroglobin is to reset the trigger level for the post-mitochondrial execution of apoptosis. An understanding of the mechanism of action of neuroglobin might thus provide a rational basis for the design of new drug targets for inhibiting excessive neuronal cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Figures

Open AccessReview A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2336-2361; doi:10.3390/ijms11062336
Received: 12 April 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the
[...] Read more.
The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Technique)
Open AccessReview Neural Membrane Signaling Platforms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2421-2442; doi:10.3390/ijms11062421
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 3 June 2010 / Accepted: 9 June 2010 / Published: 10 June 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling.
[...] Read more.
Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling. This article reviews the history of membrane studies and the current state of the art. Emphasis is placed on natural and artificial membrane studies of electric field effects on molecular organization, especially as these may relate to impulse propagation in neurons. Implications of these studies for new designs in artificial intelligence are briefly examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Machines and Nanomachines)
Open AccessReview Advances Towards Synthetic Machines at the Molecular and Nanoscale Level
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2453-2472; doi:10.3390/ijms11062453
Received: 25 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fabrication of increasingly smaller machines to the nanometer scale can be achieved by either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. While the former is reaching its limits of resolution, the latter is showing promise for the assembly of molecular components, in a comparable
[...] Read more.
The fabrication of increasingly smaller machines to the nanometer scale can be achieved by either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. While the former is reaching its limits of resolution, the latter is showing promise for the assembly of molecular components, in a comparable approach to natural systems, to produce functioning ensembles in a controlled and predetermined manner. In this review we focus on recent progress in molecular systems that act as molecular machine prototypes such as switches, motors, vehicles and logic operators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Machines and Nanomachines)
Open AccessReview Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2499-2522; doi:10.3390/ijms11062499
Received: 17 May 2010 / Revised: 26 May 2010 / Accepted: 16 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
Cited by 154 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering
[...] Read more.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probioticmediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessReview Nanocharacterization in Dentistry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2523-2545; doi:10.3390/ijms11062523
Received: 19 March 2010 / Revised: 5 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry
[...] Read more.
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also include studies of new products blocking dentine tubules to alleviate hypersensitivity; antimicrobial effects of mouthwash and characterizing nanoparticle coated dental implants. An outlook on future “nanodentistry” developments such as saliva exosomes based diagnostics, designing biocompatible, antimicrobial dental implants and personalized dental healthcare is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
Open AccessReview Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2546-2565; doi:10.3390/ijms11062546
Received: 7 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N´-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N´-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Figures

Open AccessReview Quasi-Drugs Developed in Japan for the Prevention or Treatment of Hyperpigmentary Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(6), 2566-2575; doi:10.3390/ijms11062566
Received: 1 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excess production of melanin or its abnormal distribution, or both, can cause irregular hyperpigmentation of the skin, leading to melasma and age spots. To date, various quasi-drugs that prevent or improve hyperpigmentary disorders have been developed and officially approved by the Ministry of
[...] Read more.
Excess production of melanin or its abnormal distribution, or both, can cause irregular hyperpigmentation of the skin, leading to melasma and age spots. To date, various quasi-drugs that prevent or improve hyperpigmentary disorders have been developed and officially approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. Many of these inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme required for melanin synthesis, for example, by competitive or non-competitive inhibition of its catalytic activity, by inhibiting its maturation, or by accelerating its degradation. In this review, we categorize the quasi-drugs developed in Japan to prevent or treat hyperpigmentary disorders, or both, and discuss perspectives for future development. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJMS Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijms@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJMS
Back to Top