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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2010), Pages 1973-2266

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 1973-1990; doi:10.3390/ijms11051973
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 21 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility [...] Read more.
The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Synthesis of 4′,7-Diacetoxyapigenin and Its Apoptotic Induction in Human Hep G2 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 1991-1998; doi:10.3390/ijms11051991
Received: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 23 April 2010 / Published: 30 April 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin [4-(7-acetoxy-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl) phenyl acetate] was synthesized for the first time. Its chemical structure was identified by UV, ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR. It could inhibit the proliferation of Hep G2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the [...] Read more.
In this study, 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin [4-(7-acetoxy-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl) phenyl acetate] was synthesized for the first time. Its chemical structure was identified by UV, ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR. It could inhibit the proliferation of Hep G2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the significant increase of the G0/G1 cell population. After treatment by 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin, phosphatidylserine of Hep G2 cells could significantly translocate to the surface of the membrane. The increase of an early apoptotic population was observed by both annexin-FITC and PI staining. It was concluded that 4′,7-diacetoxyapigenin not only induced cells to enter into apoptosis, but also affected the progress of the cell cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2010-2016; doi:10.3390/ijms11052010
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 17 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 3 May 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been cultivated from ancient times for its economic, ornamental and medicinal properties globally. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from a repeat-enriched genomic library of Punica granatum L. The genetic [...] Read more.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been cultivated from ancient times for its economic, ornamental and medicinal properties globally. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from a repeat-enriched genomic library of Punica granatum L. The genetic diversity of these loci was assessed in 60 genotypes of Punica granatum L. All loci were variable: the number of polymorphic alleles per locus ranged from two to five (average 2.9). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.15 to 0.87 and 0.29 to 0.65, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.26 to 0.61 (average: 0.43). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that polymorphic microsatellite markers have been reported for P. granatum L. These new markers should allow studies of the population structure and genetic diversity of pomegranate to be performed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle A Systematic Computational Study on Flavonoids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2017-2038; doi:10.3390/ijms11052017
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 27 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 3 May 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
17 selected flavones derivatives, flavonoids, were analyzed through a systematic B3LYP∕6-311++G** computational study with the aim of understanding the molecular factors that determine their structural and energetic properties in gas phase. Flavonoids were selected in a systematic way to infer the effect [...] Read more.
17 selected flavones derivatives, flavonoids, were analyzed through a systematic B3LYP∕6-311++G** computational study with the aim of understanding the molecular factors that determine their structural and energetic properties in gas phase. Flavonoids were selected in a systematic way to infer the effect of the number and relative positions of hydroxyl groups on molecular properties. Different conformers for each flavonoid were analyzed and the strength and topology of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds studied through the computation of the corresponding torsional profiles. Atoms in a Molecule, and Natural Bond Orbital methodology was applied to the analysis of charge distribution along the studied molecules, and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Molecular shapes were studied through full geometry optimization, and the position of the catechol ring analyzed through dihedral scans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Protective Effect of Glibenclamide and Metformin in Combination with Honey in Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2056-2066; doi:10.3390/ijms11052056
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 24 April 2010 / Accepted: 26 April 2010 / Published: 5 May 2010
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2067-2078; doi:10.3390/ijms11052067
Received: 2 April 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 [...] Read more.
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: firstphase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the secondphase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2097-2108; doi:10.3390/ijms11052097
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 6 May 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical [...] Read more.
Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs). The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007). The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cladistic Analysis and Molecular Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle Lutein Protects RGC-5 Cells Against Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2109-2117; doi:10.3390/ijms11052109
Received: 28 March 2010 / Revised: 13 April 2010 / Accepted: 3 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinal ischemia and oxidative stress lead to neuronal death in many ocular pathologies. Recently, we found that lutein, an oxy-carotenoid, protected the inner retina from ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, it is uncertain whether lutein directly protects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, an in [...] Read more.
Retinal ischemia and oxidative stress lead to neuronal death in many ocular pathologies. Recently, we found that lutein, an oxy-carotenoid, protected the inner retina from ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, it is uncertain whether lutein directly protects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, an in vitro model of hypoxia and oxidative stress was used to further investigate the neuroprotective role of lutein in RGCs. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2)and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were added to a transformed RGC cell line, RGC-5, to induce chemical hypoxia and oxidative stress, respectively. Either lutein or vehicle was added to cultured cells. A higher cell count was observed in the lutein-treated cells compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Our data from this in vitro model revealed that lutein might protect RGC-5 cells from damage when exposed to either CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results suggest that lutein may play a role as a neuroprotectant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Open AccessArticle Heterogenic Solid Biofuel Sampling Methodology and Uncertainty Associated with Prompt Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2118-2133; doi:10.3390/ijms11052118
Received: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special [...] Read more.
Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special care must be taken with the sampling procedure to achieve an acceptable degree of error and low statistical uncertainty. A sampling and error determination methodology for prompt analysis is presented and validated. Two approaches for the propagation of errors are also given and some comparisons are made in order to determine which may be better in this context. Results show in general low, acceptable levels of uncertainty, demonstrating that the samples obtained in the process are representative of the overall fuel composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Reconsideration of Dynamic Force Spectroscopy Analysis of Streptavidin-Biotin Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2134-2151; doi:10.3390/ijms11052134
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 3 May 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 13 May 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand and design molecular functions on the basis of molecular recognition processes, the microscopic probing of the energy landscapes of individual interactions in a molecular complex and their dependence on the surrounding conditions is of great importance. Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) [...] Read more.
To understand and design molecular functions on the basis of molecular recognition processes, the microscopic probing of the energy landscapes of individual interactions in a molecular complex and their dependence on the surrounding conditions is of great importance. Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is a technique that enables us to study the interaction between molecules at the single-molecule level. However, the obtained results differ among previous studies, which is considered to be caused by the differences in the measurement conditions. We have developed an atomic force microscopy technique that enables the precise analysis of molecular interactions on the basis of DFS. After verifying the performance of this technique, we carried out measurements to determine the landscapes of streptavidin-biotin interactions. The obtained results showed good agreement with theoretical predictions. Lifetimes were also well analyzed. Using a combination of cross-linkers and the atomic force microscope that we developed, site-selective measurement was carried out, and the steps involved in bonding due to microscopic interactions are discussed using the results obtained by site-selective analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Molecules)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2200-2211; doi:10.3390/ijms11052200
Received: 16 April 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 13 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silk sericin (SS) can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, [...] Read more.
Silk sericin (SS) can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, but SS obtained from some extraction methods can be toxic at higher concentrations. Heat-degraded SS was the least toxic to cells and activated the highest collagen production, while urea-extracted SS showed the lowest cell viability and collagen production. SS from urea extraction was severely harmful to cells at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL. SS from all extraction methods could still promote collagen production in a concentration-dependent manner, even at high concentrations that are toxic to cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Anthocyanins Profile of Grape Berries of Vitis amurensis, Its Hybrids and Their Wines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2212-2228; doi:10.3390/ijms11052212
Received: 10 February 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 8 May 2010 / Published: 21 May 2010
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of grapes and wine, an important attribute of their quality. Many authors have used anthocyanins profile to classify the grape cultivars and wine authenticity. The anthocyanin profiles of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of grapes and wine, an important attribute of their quality. Many authors have used anthocyanins profile to classify the grape cultivars and wine authenticity. The anthocyanin profiles of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids and their wines were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified 17 anthocyanins in these grape cultivars, including 11 anthocyanin monoglucosides (five pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside) and six anthocyanin diglucosides. Likewise, 15 kinds of anthocyanins were detected in wines, including six diglucosides and nine monoglucosides of anthocyanidins, in which four pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Petunidin-3-O-glucoside-4-acetaldehyde, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-acetaldehyde and Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid) were detected. In addition, a total of 14 kinds of anthocyanins including six diglucosides and eight monoglucosides of anthocyanidins were identified in skins, in which two pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside (Malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) were detected. The anthocyanins profile of grape skin of V. amurensis and its hybrids consist of the anthocyanin monoglucosides, diglucosides and pyranoanthocyanins. The wines produced resulted in a slightly different anthocyanin distribution. Pelargonidin-3,5-diglucosides was first found in the skins and wines, however, no acetyl was detected in wines. The principal component analysis results suggest that the anthocyanin profiles were helpful to classify these cultivars of V. amurensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Mobile Phase Additives on the Resolution of Four Bioactive Compounds by RP-HPLC
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2229-2240; doi:10.3390/ijms11052229
Received: 17 March 2010 / Revised: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of mobile phase additives enhances the separation and resolution of the bioactive compounds on the C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and scoparone from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae were investigated as the target compounds. Acetic acid, triethylamine, inorganic salts, [...] Read more.
The use of mobile phase additives enhances the separation and resolution of the bioactive compounds on the C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and scoparone from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae were investigated as the target compounds. Acetic acid, triethylamine, inorganic salts, and several ionic liquids were added as mobile phase additives into methanol/water (40:60, v/v). The result revealed that a mobile phase with 0.01 mol/L of ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4] enabled the optimum separation of the four target compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Self Assembly of Nano Metric Metallic Particles for Realization of Photonic and Electronic Nano Transistors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2241-2252; doi:10.3390/ijms11052242
Received: 3 April 2010 / Revised: 19 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present the self assembly procedure as well as experimental results of a novel method for constructing well defined arrangements of self assembly metallic nano particles into sophisticated nano structures. The self assembly concept is based on focused ion [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the self assembly procedure as well as experimental results of a novel method for constructing well defined arrangements of self assembly metallic nano particles into sophisticated nano structures. The self assembly concept is based on focused ion beam (FIB) technology, where metallic nano particles are self assembled due to implantation of positive gallium ions into the insulating material (e.g., silica as in silicon on insulator wafers) that acts as intermediary layer between the substrate and the negatively charge metallic nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly)
Open AccessArticle Use of Empirical Correlations to Determine Solvent Effects in the Solvolysis of S-Methyl Chlorothioformate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2253-2266; doi:10.3390/ijms11052253
Received: 5 May 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The specific rates of solvolysis of S-methyl chlorothioformate (MeSCOCl) are analyzed in 20 solvents of widely varying nucleophilicity and ionizing power at 25.0 °C using the extended Grunwald-Winstein Equation. A stepwise SN1 (DN + AN) mechanism [...] Read more.
The specific rates of solvolysis of S-methyl chlorothioformate (MeSCOCl) are analyzed in 20 solvents of widely varying nucleophilicity and ionizing power at 25.0 °C using the extended Grunwald-Winstein Equation. A stepwise SN1 (DN + AN) mechanism is proposed in the more ionizing solvents including six aqueous fluoroalcohols. In these solvents, a large sensitivity value of 0.79 towards changes in solvent nucleophilicity (l) is indicative of profound rearside nucleophilic solvation of the developing carbocation. In twelve of the more nucleophilic pure alchohols and aqueous solutions, the sensitivities obtained for solvent nucleophilicity (l) and solvent ionizing power (m) are similar to those found in acyl chlorides where an association-dissociation (AN + DN) mechanism is believed to be operative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Green Chemistry in Protected Horticulture: The Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as a Sustainable Strategy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 1999-2009; doi:10.3390/ijms11051999
Received: 16 March 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 18 April 2010 / Published: 3 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (83 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. [...] Read more.
Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Stem Cell-Based Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Strategies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2039-2055; doi:10.3390/ijms11052039
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 8 April 2010 / Accepted: 18 April 2010 / Published: 5 May 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stem cells, a special subset of cells derived from embryo or adult tissues, are known to present the characteristics of self-renewal, multiple lineages of differentiation, high plastic capability, and long-term maintenance. Recent reports have further suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs) derived [...] Read more.
Stem cells, a special subset of cells derived from embryo or adult tissues, are known to present the characteristics of self-renewal, multiple lineages of differentiation, high plastic capability, and long-term maintenance. Recent reports have further suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from the adult hippocampal and subventricular regions possess the utilizing potential to develop the transplantation strategies and to screen the candidate agents for neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the roles of NSCs and other stem cells in neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies for neurological and psychiatric diseases. We show the evidences that NSCs play the key roles involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including depression, stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the potential and possible utilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), reprogramming from adult fibroblasts with ectopic expression of four embryonic genes, are also reviewed and further discussed. An understanding of the biophysiology of stem cells could help us elucidate the pathogenicity and develop new treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to cell transplantation therapies, the application of stem cells can further provide a platform for drug discovery and small molecular testing, including Chinese herbal medicines. In addition, the high-throughput stem cell-based systems can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of neuroprotective candidates in translation medical research for neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
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Open AccessReview A Brief Review of Molecular Techniques to Assess Plant Diversity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2079-2096; doi:10.3390/ijms11052079
Received: 10 March 2010 / Revised: 24 April 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources [...] Read more.
Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessReview An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2152-2187; doi:10.3390/ijms11052152
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 3 April 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 18 May 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to [...] Read more.
Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT), etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Materials)
Open AccessReview Apoptotic Effects of Chrysin in Human Cancer Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2188-2199; doi:10.3390/ijms11052188
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 3 May 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 19 May 2010
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chrysin is a natural flavonoid currently under investigation due to its important biological anti-cancer properties. In most of the cancer cells tested, chrysin has shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, and is more potent than other tested flavonoids in leukemia cells, [...] Read more.
Chrysin is a natural flavonoid currently under investigation due to its important biological anti-cancer properties. In most of the cancer cells tested, chrysin has shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, and is more potent than other tested flavonoids in leukemia cells, where chrysin is likely to act via activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt signaling in the cells. Moreover, structure-activity relationships have revealed that the chemical structure of chrysin meets the key structural requirements of flavonoids for potent cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. It is possible that combination therapy or modified chrysin could be more potent than single-agent use or administration of unmodified chrysin. This study may help to develop ways of improving the effectiveness of chrysin in the treatment of leukemia and other human cancers in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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