Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Molecules, Volume 21, Issue 5 (May 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Carbohydrates form the third alphabet of life, and their oligomers (glycans) are integral [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-139
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle New Casbane and Cembrane Diterpenoids from an Okinawan Soft Coral, Lobophytum sp.
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050679
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new rare casbane-type diterpenoid 1 and two new cembrane diterpenoids 2, 3 were isolated from an Okinawan soft coral, Lobophytum sp., together with four known cembrane diterpenoids 4–7. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR,
[...] Read more.
A new rare casbane-type diterpenoid 1 and two new cembrane diterpenoids 2, 3 were isolated from an Okinawan soft coral, Lobophytum sp., together with four known cembrane diterpenoids 4–7. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and MS) and a molecular modeling study. The new isolates showed weak anti-bacterial activity, mild cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells, and anti-inflammatory effect in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and p38 Inhibitory Activity of Some Novel Substituted N,N′-Diarylurea Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050677
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have identified a novel series of substituted N,N′-diarylurea p38α inhibitors. The inhibitory activity of the target compounds against the enzyme p38α, MAPKAPK2 in BHK cells, TNF-α release in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and p38α binding experiments were
[...] Read more.
We have identified a novel series of substituted N,N′-diarylurea p38α inhibitors. The inhibitory activity of the target compounds against the enzyme p38α, MAPKAPK2 in BHK cells, TNF-α release in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and p38α binding experiments were tested. Among these compounds, 25a inhibited the p38α enzyme with an IC50 value of 0.47 nM and a KD value of 1.54 × 10−8 and appears to be the most promising one in the series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Inhibitor Chemistry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050678
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs
[...] Read more.
Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050676
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 113, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin
[...] Read more.
Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 113, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino) benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s) and N-(4′-amidinophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino) benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s) were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s) and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s) were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s) in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo) and on tail bleeding time (in vivo) on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Astragalin, a Flavonoid from Morus alba (Mulberry) Increases Endogenous Estrogen and Progesterone by Inhibiting Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050675
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST) reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using
[...] Read more.
Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST) reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays. Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats. Treatment of aged rats with AST (all three doses; p < 0.01) or Progynova (p < 0.01) significantly reduced GC apoptosis as compared with the aged controls. The proportions of total apoptotic GCs was 25.70%, 86.65%, 47.04%, 27.02%, 42.09% and 56.42% in the normal, aged, 17β-estradiol (E2), high dose AST, medium dose AST, and low dose AST-treated groups, respectively. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. In cultured rat GCs, AST stimulated GC proliferation, E2 and progesterone (P4) secretion, reduced apoptosis, reduced the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (p < 0.01), but had no effect on BAX. Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) Complexes with 8-Ethyl-2-hydroxytricyclo(7.3.1.02,7)tridecan-13-one-thiosemicarbazone: Antimicrobial and in Vitro Antiproliferative Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050674
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, (Cu(L)(H2O)2(OAc)) (1), (Cu(HL)(H2O)2(SO4)) (2), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(NO3)) (3), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(ClO4)) (4
[...] Read more.
New Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, (Cu(L)(H2O)2(OAc)) (1), (Cu(HL)(H2O)2(SO4)) (2), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(NO3)) (3), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(ClO4)) (4), (Cu(L)2(H2O)2) (5), (Pd(L)(OAc))H2O (6), and (Pt(L)2) (7) were synthesized from 8-ethyl-2-hydroxytricyclo(7.3.1.02,7)tridecan-13-one thiosemicarbazone (HL). The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, FAB, EPR, mass spectroscopy, elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and molar electric conductivity. The free ligand and the metal complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and cytotoxicity against the NCI-H1573 lung adenocarcinoma, SKBR-3 human breast, MCF-7 human breast, A375 human melanoma and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Copper complex 2 exhibited the best antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A significant inhibition of malignant HL-60 cell growth was observed for copper complex 2, palladium complex 6 and platinum complex 7, with IC50 values of 1.6 µM, 6.5 µM and 6.4 µM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ECSOC-19)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Xiang, S., et al. Schisandrin B Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Gallbladder Cancer Cells. Molecules 2014, 19, 13235–13250
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050673
Received: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We would like to change the Affiliation addresses on Page 13235 of paper [1], [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050672
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC) to increase its water solubility
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC) to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Poorly Soluble Drugs)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Composites Filled with Combustion Synthesized h-BN Particles
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050670
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent) for low filler loadings or a solvent
[...] Read more.
The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent) for low filler loadings or a solvent method (using acetone as solvent) for higher filler loadings. It was found that surface treatment of the h-BN particles using the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) increases the thermal conductivity of the resultant composites in a lesser amount compared to the values reported by other studies. This was explained by the fact that the combustion synthesized h-BN particles contain less –OH or active sites on the surface, thus adsorbing less amounts of GPTMS. However, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with the combustion synthesized h-BN was found to be comparable to that with commercially available h-BN reported in other studies. The thermal conductivity of the composites was found to be higher when larger h-BN particles were used. The thermal conductivity was also found to increase with increasing filler content to a maximum and then begin to decrease with further increases in this content. In addition to the effect of higher porosity at higher filler contents, more horizontally oriented h-BN particles formed at higher filler loadings (perhaps due to pressing during formation of the composites) were suggested to be a factor causing this decrease of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermal conductivities were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Nielsen and Lewis theory. The theoretical predictions were found to be lower than the experimental values at low filler contents (< 60 vol %) and became increasing higher than the experimental values at high filler contents (> 60 vol %). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boron Nitride: Synthesis and Application)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Oleanolic Triterpenes from Chinese Acorns
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050669
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acorns play an important role in human history and are a source of food and recipes for many cultures around the world. In this study, eleven oleanolic triterpenes, one of which was novel, were isolated from Chinese acorns (Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata).
[...] Read more.
Acorns play an important role in human history and are a source of food and recipes for many cultures around the world. In this study, eleven oleanolic triterpenes, one of which was novel, were isolated from Chinese acorns (Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata). The chemical structure of the novel triterpene, which was identified as 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-24-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), was established based on the interpretation of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR experiments (1H, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compared with the positive control drug indomethacin (IC50 = 47.4 μM), compounds 1, 3, 6 and 8 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 5.4, 7.8, 4.0 and 8.9 μM, respectively. Besides, compounds 2, 4, 7 and 9 also showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 10.1, 13.0, 20.1 and 17.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, Compound 1 could inhibit TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in MH7A cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050667
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using
[...] Read more.
Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coinage Metal (Copper, Silver, and Gold) Catalysis)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase as a New Antibiotic Target
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050654
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In humans de novo synthesis of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), an essential building block of DNA, utilizes an enzymatic pathway requiring thymidylate synthase (TSase) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The enzyme flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) represents an alternative enzymatic pathway to synthesize dTMP, which is not
[...] Read more.
In humans de novo synthesis of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), an essential building block of DNA, utilizes an enzymatic pathway requiring thymidylate synthase (TSase) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The enzyme flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) represents an alternative enzymatic pathway to synthesize dTMP, which is not present in human cells. A number of pathogenic bacteria, however, depend on this enzyme in lieu of or in conjunction with the analogous human pathway. Thus, inhibitors of this enzyme may serve as antibiotics. Here, we review the similarities and differences of FDTS vs. TSase including aspects of their structure and chemical mechanism. In addition, we review current progress in the search for inhibitors of flavin dependent thymidylate synthase as potential novel therapeutics. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle BiOBr/BiOI Photocatalyst Based on Fly Ash Cenospheres with Improved Photocatalytic Performance
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050666
Received: 27 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of BiOBr/BiOI photocatalysts supported on fly-ash cenospheres (FACs) were successfully prepared via a facile one-pot alcoholysis method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The
[...] Read more.
A series of BiOBr/BiOI photocatalysts supported on fly-ash cenospheres (FACs) were successfully prepared via a facile one-pot alcoholysis method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicate that pH value plays a critical role in BiOBr/BiOI loading. Based on the photodegradation tests under visible light irradiation (blue LED irradiation), the photocatalytic property of BiOBr/BiOI/FACs photocatalysts obtained under alkaline conditions is superior to that prepared under neutral or acidic conditions, and higher than those of BiOB/FACs and BiOI//FACs. The improved photocatalytic performance of BiOBr/BiOI/FACs can be attributed to more BiOBr/BiOI loaded on the surface of FACs and the efficient photogenerated electron-hole separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Photochemistry)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Novel Cage-Like Hexanuclear Nickel(II) Silsesquioxane. Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Activity in Oxidations with Peroxides
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050665
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New hexanuclear nickel(II) silsesquioxane [(PhSiO1.5)12(NiO)6(NaCl)] (1) was synthesized as its dioxane-benzonitrile-water complex (PhSiO1,5)12(NiO)6(NaCl)(C4H8O2)13(PhCN)2(H2O)2 and studied by X-ray and
[...] Read more.
New hexanuclear nickel(II) silsesquioxane [(PhSiO1.5)12(NiO)6(NaCl)] (1) was synthesized as its dioxane-benzonitrile-water complex (PhSiO1,5)12(NiO)6(NaCl)(C4H8O2)13(PhCN)2(H2O)2 and studied by X-ray and topological analysis. The compound exhibits cylinder-like type of molecular architecture and represents very rare case of polyhedral complexation of metallasilsesquioxane with benzonitrile. Complex 1 exhibited catalytic activity in activation of such small molecules as light alkanes and alcohols. Namely, oxidation of alcohols with tert-butylhydroperoxide and alkanes with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The oxidation of methylcyclohexane gave rise to the isomeric ketones and unusual distribution of alcohol isomers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Mediated Activation of Small Molecules)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication Comprehensive Qualitative Ingredient Profiling of Chinese Herbal Formula Wu-Zhu-Yu Decoction via a Mass Defect and Fragment Filtering Approach Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050664
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of headache. To reveal its material basis, a rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method was established for comprehensive profiling of the chemical ingredients in the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction. The
[...] Read more.
The Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of headache. To reveal its material basis, a rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method was established for comprehensive profiling of the chemical ingredients in the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction. The method was used on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer along with an advanced data processing procedure consisting of mass accuracy screening, mass defect filtering and fragment filtering. After eliminating interference with a filtering approach, the MS data profiling was made more distinct and accurate. With the optimized conditions of only 35 min LC separation and single sample injection of each positive or negative ion mode, a total of 168 compounds were characterized, including 23 evodiamine and its analogous alkaloids, 12 limonoids, 17 gingerols, 38 ginsenosides, 15 flavonoids, 16 organic acids, 14 alkaloids, 5 saponins, 3 2,2-dimethylchromenes and 25 other compounds. The fragmentation patterns of representative compounds were illustrated as well. Integrative qualitative analysis of the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by high resolution mass spectrometry was accomplished and reported for the first time. The study demonstrated that the established method was a powerful and reliable strategy for comprehensive detection and would be widely applicable for identification of complicated components from herbal prescriptions, and may provide a basis for chemical analysis of other complex mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Antiproliferative Fate of the Tetraploid Formed after Mitotic Slippage and Its Promotion; A Novel Target for Cancer Therapy Based on Microtubule Poisons
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050663
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microtubule poisons inhibit spindle function, leading to activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and mitotic arrest. Cell death occurring in prolonged mitosis is the first target of microtubule poisons in cancer therapies. However, even in the presence of microtubule poisons, SAC and mitotic
[...] Read more.
Microtubule poisons inhibit spindle function, leading to activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and mitotic arrest. Cell death occurring in prolonged mitosis is the first target of microtubule poisons in cancer therapies. However, even in the presence of microtubule poisons, SAC and mitotic arrest are not permanent, and the surviving cells exit the mitosis without cytokinesis (mitotic slippage), becoming tetraploid. Another target of microtubule poisons-based cancer therapy is antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage. The ultimate goal of both the microtubule poisons-based cancer therapies involves the induction of a mechanism defined as mitotic catastrophe, which is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. This mechanism of antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage is not as well understood. We provide an overview of mitotic catastrophe, and explain new insights underscoring a causal association between basal autophagy levels and antiproliferative fate after mitotic slippage, and propose possible improved strategies. Additionally, we discuss nuclear alterations characterizing the mitotic catastrophe (micronuclei, multinuclei) after mitotic slippage, and a possible new type of nuclear alteration (clustered micronuclei). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation of Microtubule-Interacting Anticancer Agents)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adsorption and Gas Separation of Molecules by Carbon Nanohorns
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050662
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the adsorption of neon, argon, methane and carbon dioxide in carbon nanohorns. We model the nanohorns as an array of carbon cones and obtained adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats. The main
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the adsorption of neon, argon, methane and carbon dioxide in carbon nanohorns. We model the nanohorns as an array of carbon cones and obtained adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats. The main sites of adsorption are inside the cones and in the interstices between three cones. We also calculated the selectivity of carbon dioxide/methane, finding that nanohorns are a suitable substrate for gas separation. Our simulations are compared to available experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes: Advances and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel Symmetrical 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Bistriazole Derivatives via ‘Click Chemistry’ and Their Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050659
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of symmetric bis-1,2,3-triazole compounds 2–5(a–f) were synthesized as potential antioxidant agents via click chemistry. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. All of the synthesized compounds were subjected to antioxidant and antimicrobial assays. The antioxidant activity of these
[...] Read more.
A series of symmetric bis-1,2,3-triazole compounds 2–5(a–f) were synthesized as potential antioxidant agents via click chemistry. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. All of the synthesized compounds were subjected to antioxidant and antimicrobial assays. The antioxidant activity of these compounds (AChE inhibition, DPPH and SOD activities) was evaluated. Compound 2f was found to show the highest AChE inhibition activity of all compounds, while compound 3b showed a strong inhibitory effect on DPPH radical and compound 2a was the most effective of all compounds for SOD activity. All synthesized compounds were found to possess moderate antibacterial activity against the bacteria E. coli and Y.pseudotuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole Derivates as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050653
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly,
[...] Read more.
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly, compound I-21 showed the most excellent antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.52 μM against SK-N-SH cancer cells. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound I-21 induced morphological changes of SK-N-SH cancer cells possibly by inducing apoptosis. Novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole derivatives in this work might be a series of promising lead compounds to develop anticancer agents for treating neuroblastoma. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Novel Radioligands for Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography: An Update on Developments Since 2012
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050650
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a class of intracellular enzymes that inactivate the secondary messenger molecules, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Thus, PDEs regulate the signaling cascades mediated by these cyclic nucleotides and affect fundamental intracellular processes. Pharmacological inhibition
[...] Read more.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a class of intracellular enzymes that inactivate the secondary messenger molecules, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Thus, PDEs regulate the signaling cascades mediated by these cyclic nucleotides and affect fundamental intracellular processes. Pharmacological inhibition of PDE activity is a promising strategy for treatment of several diseases. However, the role of the different PDEs in related pathologies is not completely clarified yet. PDE-specific radioligands enable non-invasive visualization and quantification of these enzymes by positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo and provide an important translational tool for elucidation of the relationship between altered expression of PDEs and pathophysiological effects as well as (pre-)clinical evaluation of novel PDE inhibitors developed as therapeutics. Herein we present an overview of novel PDE radioligands for PET published since 2012. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging Probes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050661
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol (RES) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET) improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RES) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET) improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old) were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group), supplementation with RES group (RES group), ET group (ET group), and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group). Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group). In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05), and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05). Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements for Resveratrol Efficacy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Synthetic Strategies for 5- and 6-Membered Ring Azaheterocycles Facilitated by Iminyl Radicals
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050660
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (3768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The totality of chemical space is so immense that only a small fraction can ever be explored. Computational searching has indicated that bioactivity is associated with a comparatively small number of ring-containing structures. Pyrrole, indole, pyridine, quinoline, quinazoline and related 6-membered ring-containing aza-arenes
[...] Read more.
The totality of chemical space is so immense that only a small fraction can ever be explored. Computational searching has indicated that bioactivity is associated with a comparatively small number of ring-containing structures. Pyrrole, indole, pyridine, quinoline, quinazoline and related 6-membered ring-containing aza-arenes figure prominently. This review focuses on the search for fast, efficient and environmentally friendly preparative methods for these rings with specific emphasis on iminyl radical-mediated procedures. Oxime derivatives, particularly oxime esters and oxime ethers, are attractive precursors for these radicals. Their use is described in conventional thermolytic, microwave-assisted and UV-vis based preparative procedures. Photoredox-catalyzed protocols involving designer oxime ethers are also covered. Choice can be made amongst these synthetic strategies for a wide variety of 5- and 6-membered ring heterocycles including phenanthridine and related aza-arenes. Applications to selected natural products and bioactive molecules, including trispheridine, vasconine, luotonin A and rutaecarpine, are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals in Organic Synthesis)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication Cytotoxicity of Different Excipients on RPMI 2650 Human Nasal Epithelial Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050658
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need
[...] Read more.
The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need to be tested in appropriate models for toxicity. The aim of the study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six pharmaceutical excipients, which could help to reach larger residence time, better permeability, and increased solubility dissolution rate. The following excipients were investigated on RPMI 2650 human nasal septum tumor epithelial cells: β-d-mannitol, sodium hyaluronate, α and β-cyclodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and methylcellulose. 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye conversion assay and real-time impedance analysis were used to investigate cytotoxicity. No excipient showed toxicity at 0.3% (w/v) concentration or below while 1% concentration a significantly reduced metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay for methylcellulose and cyclodextrins. Using impedance measurements, only β-cyclodextrin (1%) was toxic to cells. Mannitol at 1% concentration had a barrier opening effect on epithelial cells, but caused no cellular damage. Based on the results, all additives at 0.3%, sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol at 1% concentrations can be safely used for nasal formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Design and Discovery: Principles and Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Towards a Rational Design of a Continuous-Flow Method for the Acetalization of Crude Glycerol: Scope and Limitations of Commercial Amberlyst 36 and AlF3·3H2O as Model Catalysts
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050657
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The acetalization of six different types of glycerol including pure, wet, and crude-like grade compounds of compositions simulating those of crude glycerols produced by the biodiesel manufacture, was carried out with two model ketones such as acetone and 2-butanone. The reaction was investigated
[...] Read more.
The acetalization of six different types of glycerol including pure, wet, and crude-like grade compounds of compositions simulating those of crude glycerols produced by the biodiesel manufacture, was carried out with two model ketones such as acetone and 2-butanone. The reaction was investigated under continuous-flow (CF) conditions through a comparative analysis of an already known acetalization catalyst such as Amberlyst 36 (A36), and aluminum fluoride three hydrate (AlF3·3H2O, AF) whose use was never previously reported for the synthesis of acetals. At 10 bar and 25 °C, A36 was a highly active catalyst allowing good-to-excellent conversion (85%–97%) and selectivity (99%) when either pure or wet glycerol was used as a reagent. This catalyst however, proved unsuitable for the CF acetalization of crude-like glycerol (CG) since it severely and irreversibly deactivated in a few hours by the presence of low amounts of NaCl (2.5 wt %) which is a typical inorganic impurity of raw glycerol from the biorefinery. Higher temperature and pressure (up to 100 °C and 30 bar) were not successful to improve the outcome. By contrast, at 10 bar and 100 °C, AF catalyzed the acetalization of CG with both acetone and 2-butanone, yielding stable conversion and productivity up to 78% and 5.6 h−1, respectively. A XRD analysis of fresh and used catalysts proved that the active phase was a solid solution (SS) of formula Al2[F1-x(OH)x]6(H2O)y present as a component of the investigated commercial AF sample. A hypothesis to explain the role of such SS phase was then formulated based on the Brønsted acidity of OH groups of the solid framework. Overall, the AF catalyst allowed not only a straightforward upgrading of CG to acetals, but also a more cost-efficient protocol avoiding the expensive refining of raw glycerol itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flow Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Alkyl Nitroderivatives of Hydroxytyrosol
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050656
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson’s disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel
[...] Read more.
A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson’s disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel compounds has been evaluated using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Oxygen Radical Scavenging Capacity (ORAC) assays compared to that of nitrohydroxytyrosol (NO2HT) and free HT. New compounds showed variable antioxidant activity depending on the alkyl side chain length; compounds with short chains (2–4 carbon atoms) maintained or even improved the antioxidant activity compared to NO2HT and/or HT, whereas those with longer side chains (6–8 carbon atoms) showed lower activity than NO2HT but higher than HT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Low-Molecular Weight Polyethylenimine Modified with Pluronic 123 and RGD- or Chimeric RGD-NLS Peptide: Characteristics and Transfection Efficacy of Their Complexes with Plasmid DNA
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050655
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To solve the problem of transfection efficiency vs. cytotoxicity and tumor-targeting ability when polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a nonviral gene delivery vector, new degradable PEI polymers were synthesized via cross-linking low-molecular-weight PEI with Pluronic P123 and then further coupled with a targeting
[...] Read more.
To solve the problem of transfection efficiency vs. cytotoxicity and tumor-targeting ability when polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a nonviral gene delivery vector, new degradable PEI polymers were synthesized via cross-linking low-molecular-weight PEI with Pluronic P123 and then further coupled with a targeting peptide R4 (RGD) and a bifunctional R11 (RGD-NLS), which were termed as P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that both P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11 efficaciously condense plasmid DNA at a polymer-to-pDNA w/w ratio of 3.0 and 0.4, respectively. The polyplexes were stable in the presence of serum and could protect plasmid DNA against DNaseI. They had uniform spherical nanoparticles with appropriate sizes around 100–280 nm and zeta-potentials about +40 mV. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that these polyplexes had lower cytotoxicity at any concentration compared with PEI 25 kDa, thus giving promise to high transfection efficiency as compared with another P123-PEI derivate conjugated with trifunctional peptide RGD-TAT-NLS (P123-PEI-R18). More importantly, compared with the other polymers, P123-PEI-R11 showed the highest transfection efficiency with relatively lower cytotoxicity at any concentration, indicating that the new synthetic polymer P123-PEI-R11 could be used as a safe and efficient gene deliver vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules Modification)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050640
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from
[...] Read more.
YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%–104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Developing an Absorption–Based Quality Control Method for Hu–Gan–Kang–Yuan Capsules by UFLC–QTOF–MS/MS Screening and HPLC–DAD Quantitative Determination
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050592
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparations (TCMPs) contain massive numbers of ingredients responsible for their multiple efficacies. An absorption–based quality control method for complicated TCMPs using Hu–gan–kang–yuan Capsule (HGKYC) as an example was developed. To select proper chemical markers for quality control of HGKYC, an
[...] Read more.
Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparations (TCMPs) contain massive numbers of ingredients responsible for their multiple efficacies. An absorption–based quality control method for complicated TCMPs using Hu–gan–kang–yuan Capsule (HGKYC) as an example was developed. To select proper chemical markers for quality control of HGKYC, an ultra–fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time–off light mass spectrometry (UFLC–QTOF–MS/MS) method was used for the rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in the HGKYC extract and the rat serum after oral administration of HGKYC. As a result, one hundred and seven prototype constituents including flavonoids, organic acid, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, phenols and amino acids in HGKYC extract, and 43 compounds found in rat serum after oral administration of HGKYC were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized by comparing retention times and MS information with those of authentic standards or available literature references. Finally, a simple, low–cost and effective method of simultaneous determination for baicalein, wogonin, paeonol and emodin in HGKYC was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. In conclusion, an absorption–based quality control pattern was developed and successfully used for evaluating HGKYC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050580
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific
[...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase), the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor), and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene). However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging Probes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Taxanes in the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050651
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although rapid advances in treatment options have improved the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC), it remains a major public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) are microtubule stabilizing agents that inhibit
[...] Read more.
Although rapid advances in treatment options have improved the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC), it remains a major public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) are microtubule stabilizing agents that inhibit the process of cell division, and have shown antitumor activity in the treatment of AGC as a single or combination chemotherapy. Accordingly, this review focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of taxanes in the first- or second-line chemotherapy setting for AGC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation of Microtubule-Interacting Anticancer Agents)
Back to Top