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Molecules, Volume 21, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Oxylipin Mimics and Their Antifungal Activity against the Citrus Postharvest Pathogens
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020254
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nine oxylipin mimics were designed and synthesized starting from d-mannose. Their antifungal activity against three citrus postharvest pathogens was evaluated by spore germination assay. The results indicated that all the compounds significantly inhibited the growth of Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and
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Nine oxylipin mimics were designed and synthesized starting from d-mannose. Their antifungal activity against three citrus postharvest pathogens was evaluated by spore germination assay. The results indicated that all the compounds significantly inhibited the growth of Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Aspergillus niger. The compound (3Z,6Z,8S,9R,10R)-octadeca-3,6-diene-8,9,10-triol (3) exhibited excellent inhibitory effect on both Penicillium digitatum (IC50 = 34 ppm) and Penicillium italicum (IC50 = 94 ppm). Their in vivo antifungal activities against citrus postharvest blue mold were tested with fruit inoculated with the pathogen Penicillium italicum. The compound (3R,4S)-methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-octyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylate (9) demonstrated significant efficacy by reducing the disease severity to 60%. The antifungal mechanism of these oxylipin mimics was postulated in which both inhibition of pathogenic mycelium and stimuli of the host oxylipin-mediated defense response played important roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020251
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine
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Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2–4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1–4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Multicomponent Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives of Dihydropyrimidinones as Acidic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020250
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which
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An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which the aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles reacted with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in the presence of Ce(OTf)3 as the catalyst. The corrosion inhibition of steel grade API 5 L X52 in 1 M HCl by the synthesized compounds was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The measurements revealed that these heterocycles are promising candidates to inhibit acidic corrosion of steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MCRs and Related One-Pot Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Coumarins with in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity and High Protective Effects against DNA Damage
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020249
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coumarins are naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclic compounds having multifarious medicinal properties, hence used as lead compounds for designing new potent analogs. The chromene butenoic acid 3 and the benzochromene butenoic acid 4 which are derived from the reaction of glyoxalic acid with 3-acetylcoumarin
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Coumarins are naturally occurring oxygen heterocyclic compounds having multifarious medicinal properties, hence used as lead compounds for designing new potent analogs. The chromene butenoic acid 3 and the benzochromene butenoic acid 4 which are derived from the reaction of glyoxalic acid with 3-acetylcoumarin and 3-acetylbenzocoumarin, respectively, were reacted with different nitrogen and carbon nucleophiles to give new heterocyclic compounds. The structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Some of the newly prepared compounds were tested in vitro against a panel of four human tumor cell lines namely; hepatocellular carcinoma (liver) HepG2, colon cancer HCT-116, human prostate cancer PC3, and mammary gland breast MCF-7. Also they were tested as antioxidants. Almost all of the tested compounds showed satisfactory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
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Open AccessReview Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020247
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have
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Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Leccinum molle (Bon) Bon and Leccinum vulpinum Watling: The First Study of Their Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020246
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
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Abstract
This work presents the chemical profile of two edible species of mushrooms from the genus Leccinum: Leccinum molle (Bon) Bon and Leccinum vulpinum Watling, both harvested on the outskirts of Bragança (Northeastern Portugal). Both species were prepared and characterized regarding their content in
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This work presents the chemical profile of two edible species of mushrooms from the genus Leccinum: Leccinum molle (Bon) Bon and Leccinum vulpinum Watling, both harvested on the outskirts of Bragança (Northeastern Portugal). Both species were prepared and characterized regarding their content in nutrients (i.e., free sugars, fatty acids and vitamins), non-nutrients (i.e., phenolic and other organic acids) and antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies on the chemical characterization and bioactivity of these species have been undertaken. Accordingly, this study intends to increase the available information concerning edible mushroom species, as well as to highlight another important factor regarding the conservation of the mycological resources—their potential as sources of nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compounds. Overall, both species revealed similar nutrient profiles, with low fat levels, fructose, mannitol and trehalose as the foremost free sugars, and high percentages of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. They also revealed the presence of bioactive compounds, namely phenolic (e.g., gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and organic acids (e.g., citric and fumaric acids) and presented antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Catechin Hydrate Augments the Antibacterial Action of Selected Antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020244
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synergistic effects between commonly used antibiotics and natural substances may be an alternative to conventional antibacterial therapies. The objective of the presented study was to assess the in vitro antibacterial activity of catechin hydrate (CH) and evaluate the interactions of CH with selected
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Synergistic effects between commonly used antibiotics and natural substances may be an alternative to conventional antibacterial therapies. The objective of the presented study was to assess the in vitro antibacterial activity of catechin hydrate (CH) and evaluate the interactions of CH with selected antibiotics using Staphylococcus aureus clinical and reference strains. CH displayed diverse activity towards examined S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 256 to 2048 µg/mL. The interaction between CH and antibiotics was assessed by an E-test. The most significant synergistic effects were noticed for CH in combination with clindamycin and erythromycin. For cefoxitin and vancomycin a decrease of MIC values in the presence of CH was also observed, but it did not reach statistical significance. The obtained results demonstrate that CH shows antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains. What is more, we proved a synergistic effect of CH with erythromycin and clindamycin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Porphyrin Cobalt(III) “Nitrene Radical” Reactivity; Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Ortho-YH Substituents to the Nitrene Moiety of Cobalt-Bound Aryl Nitrene Intermediates (Y = O, NH)
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020242
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the field of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed metallo-radical reactions, organic azides have emerged as successful nitrene transfer reagents. In the pursuit of employing ortho-YH substituted (Y = O, NH) aryl azides in Co(II) porphyrin-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions, unexpected hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from
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In the field of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed metallo-radical reactions, organic azides have emerged as successful nitrene transfer reagents. In the pursuit of employing ortho-YH substituted (Y = O, NH) aryl azides in Co(II) porphyrin-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions, unexpected hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the OH or NH2 group in the ortho-position to the nitrene moiety of the key radical-intermediate was observed. This leads to formation of reactive ortho-iminoquinonoid (Y = O) and phenylene diimine (Y = NH) species. These intermediates convert to subsequent products in non-catalyzed reactions, as is typical for these free organic compounds. As such, the observed reactions prevent the anticipated cobalt-mediated catalytic radical-type coupling of the nitrene radical intermediates to alkynes or alkenes. Nonetheless, the observed reactions provide valuable insights into the reactivity of transition metal nitrene-radical intermediates, and give access to ortho-iminoquinonoid and phenylene diimine intermediates from ortho-YH substituted aryl azides in a catalytic manner. The latter can be employed as intermediates in one-pot catalytic transformations. From the ortho-hydroxy aryl azide substrates both phenoxizinones and benzoxazines could be synthesized in high yields. From the ortho-amino aryl azide substrates azabenzene compounds were obtained as the main products. Computational studies support these observations, and reveal that HAT from the neighboring OH and NH2 moiety to the nitrene radical moiety has a low energy barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Azides)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Melatonin in Research
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020240
Received: 10 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 11 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Citation indexes represent helpful tools for evaluating the impact of articles on research. The aim of this study was to obtain the top-100 ranking of the most cited papers on melatonin, a relevant neurohormone mainly involved in phase-adjusting the biological clock and with
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Citation indexes represent helpful tools for evaluating the impact of articles on research. The aim of this study was to obtain the top-100 ranking of the most cited papers on melatonin, a relevant neurohormone mainly involved in phase-adjusting the biological clock and with certain sleep-promoting capability. An article search was carried out on the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science platform. Numbers of citations, names of authors, journals and their 2014-impact factor, year of publication, and experimental designs of studies were recorded. The ranking of the 100-most cited articles on melatonin research (up to February 2016) revealed a citation range from 1623 to 310. Narrative reviews/expert opinions were the most frequently cited articles, while the main research topics were oxidative stress, sleep physiology, reproduction, circadian rhythms and melatonin receptors. This study represents the first detailed analysis of the 100 top-cited articles published in the field of melatonin research, showing its impact and relevance in the biomedical field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of a New Class of Sortase A Transpeptidase Inhibitors to Tackle Gram-Positive Pathogens: 2-(2-Phenylhydrazinylidene)alkanoic Acids and Related Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020241
Received: 26 December 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 12 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A FRET-based random screening assay was used to generate hit compounds as sortase A inhibitors that allowed us to identify ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene)butanoate as an example of a new class of sortase A inhibitors. Other analogues were generated by changing the ethoxycarbonyl function for
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A FRET-based random screening assay was used to generate hit compounds as sortase A inhibitors that allowed us to identify ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene)butanoate as an example of a new class of sortase A inhibitors. Other analogues were generated by changing the ethoxycarbonyl function for a carboxy, cyano or amide group, or introducing substituents in the phenyl ring of the ester and acid derivatives. The most active derivative found was 3-oxo-2-(2-(3,4dichlorophenyl)hydrazinylidene)butanoic acid (2b), showing an IC50 value of 50 µM. For a preliminary assessment of their antivirulence properties the new derivatives were tested for their antibiofilm activity. The most active compound resulted 2a, which showed inhibition of about 60% against S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. epidermidis RP62A at a screening concentration of 100 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 2-Alkenyl-2H-indazoles from 2-(2-Carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020238
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
PDF Full-text (3645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A procedure has been developed for synthesis of 2-alkenyl-2H-indazoles starting from 2-(2-carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles, which are prepared by gallium/aluminium- and aluminium-mediated, direct, regioselective alkylation of indazoles with α-bromocarbonyl compounds. The structure of 3-(2H-indazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one was proven by X-ray
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A procedure has been developed for synthesis of 2-alkenyl-2H-indazoles starting from 2-(2-carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles, which are prepared by gallium/aluminium- and aluminium-mediated, direct, regioselective alkylation of indazoles with α-bromocarbonyl compounds. The structure of 3-(2H-indazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one was proven by X-ray crystallography. The styrene- and coumarin-2H-indazoles produced by using the new method were found to have interesting fluorescence properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity of Isoliquiritin and Its Inhibitory Effect against Peronophythora litchi Chen through a Membrane Damage Mechanism
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020237
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanism(s) of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen, one of the main litchi pathogens. The antifungal activity of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen had been proven in a dose-dependent manner through in vitro (mycelial growth
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This study investigated the antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanism(s) of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen, one of the main litchi pathogens. The antifungal activity of isoliquiritin against P. litchi Chen had been proven in a dose-dependent manner through in vitro (mycelial growth and sporangia germination) and in vivo (detached leaf) tests. Results revealed that isoliquiritin exhibited significant antifungal activity against the tested pathogens, especially, P. litchi Chen, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 27.33 mg/L. The morphology of P. litchi Chen was apparently changed by isoliquiritin through cytoplasm leakage and distortion of mycelia. The cell membrane permeability of the P. litchi Chen increased with the increasing concentration of isoliquiritin, as evidenced by a rise in relative electric conductivity and a decrease in reducing sugar contents. These results indicated that the antifungal effects of isoliquiritin could be explained by a membrane lesion mechanism causing damage to the cell membrane integrity leading to the death of mycelial cells. Taken together, isoliquiritin may be used as a natural alternative to commercial fungicides or a lead compound to develop new fungicides for the control of litchi downy blight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First Principles Modeling of the Decomposition Mechanisms of Organic Nitro Energetic Materials
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020236
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation
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This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our own first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 20th Anniversary of Molecules—Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Solvated Structure of Photoexcited [Os(terpy)2]2+ with X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020235
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Characterizing the geometric and electronic structures of individual photoexcited dye molecules in solution is an important step towards understanding the interfacial properties of photo-active electrodes. The broad family of “red sensitizers” based on osmium(II) polypyridyl compounds often undergoes small photo-induced structural changes which
[...] Read more.
Characterizing the geometric and electronic structures of individual photoexcited dye molecules in solution is an important step towards understanding the interfacial properties of photo-active electrodes. The broad family of “red sensitizers” based on osmium(II) polypyridyl compounds often undergoes small photo-induced structural changes which are challenging to characterize. In this work, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution is employed to determine the geometric and electronic structures of the photoexcited triplet state of [Os(terpy)2]2+ (terpy: 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) solvated in methanol. From the EXAFS analysis, the structural changes can be characterized by a slight overall expansion of the first coordination shell [OsN6]. DFT calculations supports the XTA results. They also provide additional information about the nature of the molecular orbitals that contribute to the optical spectrum (with TD-DFT) and the near-edge region of the X-ray spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Engineering for Electrochemical Power Sources)
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Open AccessArticle Multicomponent Analysis of the Differential Induction of Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Fungal Endophytes
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020234
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 13 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles
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Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs) involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants. The plant-microbe interaction may influence the expression of some biosynthetic pathways, otherwise cryptic in these fungi when grown in vitro. The aim of this study was to setup a systematic approach to evaluate and identify the possible effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on the metabolic profiles of wild type fungal endophytes, including the chemical identification and characterization of the most significant SMs induced by these epigenetic modifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Metabolomics within Natural Products Chemistry)
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