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Molecules 2016, 21(2), 251; doi:10.3390/molecules21020251

Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols

1
Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
3
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
5
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524, Egypt
6
Departement of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
7
Departement of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3574 KB, uploaded 22 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2–4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1–4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts; mangosteen; amadori product; epicatechin; benzophenone; garcimangosone D; aromadendrin advanced glycation endproducts; mangosteen; amadori product; epicatechin; benzophenone; garcimangosone D; aromadendrin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdallah, H.M.; El-Bassossy, H.; Mohamed, G.A.; El-Halawany, A.M.; Alshali, K.Z.; Banjar, Z.M. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols. Molecules 2016, 21, 251.

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