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Molecules, Volume 20, Issue 6 (June 2015), Pages 9487-11631

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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Condensation Reactions of Acetophenone Derivatives and Activated Methylene Compounds with Aldehydes Catalyzed by Boric Acid under Solvent-Free Conditions
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11617-11631; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611617
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We here disclosed a new protocol for the condensation of acetophenone derivatives and active methylene compounds with aldehydes in the presence of boric acid under microwave conditions. Implementation of the reaction is simple, healthy and environmentally friendly owing to the use of a
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We here disclosed a new protocol for the condensation of acetophenone derivatives and active methylene compounds with aldehydes in the presence of boric acid under microwave conditions. Implementation of the reaction is simple, healthy and environmentally friendly owing to the use of a non-toxic catalyst coupled to a solvent-free procedure. A large variety of known or novel compounds have thus been prepared, including with substrates bearing acid or base-sensitive functional groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11604-11616; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611604
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG) provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v) alcohol or an
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The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG) provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v) alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON), alcohol control (ET), and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively). Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Surfing the Protein-Protein Interaction Surface Using Docking Methods: Application to the Design of PPI Inhibitors
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11569-11603; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611569
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blocking protein-protein interactions (PPI) using small molecules or peptides modulates biochemical pathways and has therapeutic significance. PPI inhibition for designing drug-like molecules is a new area that has been explored extensively during the last decade. Considering the number of available PPI inhibitor databases
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Blocking protein-protein interactions (PPI) using small molecules or peptides modulates biochemical pathways and has therapeutic significance. PPI inhibition for designing drug-like molecules is a new area that has been explored extensively during the last decade. Considering the number of available PPI inhibitor databases and the limited number of 3D structures available for proteins, docking and scoring methods play a major role in designing PPI inhibitors as well as stabilizers. Docking methods are used in the design of PPI inhibitors at several stages of finding a lead compound, including modeling the protein complex, screening for hot spots on the protein-protein interaction interface and screening small molecules or peptides that bind to the PPI interface. There are three major challenges to the use of docking on the relatively flat surfaces of PPI. In this review we will provide some examples of the use of docking in PPI inhibitor design as well as its limitations. The combination of experimental and docking methods with improved scoring function has thus far resulted in few success stories of PPI inhibitors for therapeutic purposes. Docking algorithms used for PPI are in the early stages, however, and as more data are available docking will become a highly promising area in the design of PPI inhibitors or stabilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Docking in Drug Design)
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Open AccessArticle Trypanocidal Activity of Long Chain Diamines and Aminoalcohols
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11554-11568; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611554
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thirteen aminoalcohols and eight diamines were obtained and tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes strains MG, JEM and CL-B5 clone. Some of them were equal or more potent (1.0–6.6 times) than the reference compound nifurtimox. From them, three aminoalcohols and two diamines were selected
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Thirteen aminoalcohols and eight diamines were obtained and tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes strains MG, JEM and CL-B5 clone. Some of them were equal or more potent (1.0–6.6 times) than the reference compound nifurtimox. From them, three aminoalcohols and two diamines were selected for amastigotes assays. Compound 5 was as potent as the reference drug nifurtimox against amastigotes of the CL-B5 strain (IC50 = 0.6 µM), with a selectivity index of 54. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiparasitic Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Uses of 3-(2-Bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one in the Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporating Coumarin: Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxicity
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11535-11553; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611535
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, 3-bromoacetylcoumarin was used as the key starting material for the synthesis of pyran, pyridine, thiophene, thiazole and pyrazole derivatives through its reaction with different reagents. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral
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In this work, 3-bromoacetylcoumarin was used as the key starting material for the synthesis of pyran, pyridine, thiophene, thiazole and pyrazole derivatives through its reaction with different reagents. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All of the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines, namely: human gastric cancer (NUGC), human colon cancer (DLD1), human liver cancer (HA22T and HEPG2), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (HONE1), human breast cancer (MCF) and normal fibroblast cells (WI38). The IC50 values (the sample concentration that produces 50% reduction in cell growth) in nanomolars (nM)) showed most of the compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic effect. Among these derivatives, compound 6d showed almost equipotent cytotoxic activity against NUGC (IC50 = 29 nM) compared to the standard CHS 828 (IC50 = 25 nM). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Combinational Treatment of Curcumin and Quercetin against Gastric Cancer MGC-803 Cells in Vitro
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11524-11534; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611524
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gastric cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Natural products, with stronger antitumor activity and fewer side effects, are potential candidates for pharmaceutical development as anticancer agents. In this study, quercetin and curcumin were chosen for testing and were applied separately and in
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Gastric cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Natural products, with stronger antitumor activity and fewer side effects, are potential candidates for pharmaceutical development as anticancer agents. In this study, quercetin and curcumin were chosen for testing and were applied separately and in combination to human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell growth inhibition. Annexin V-FITC/PI was carried out to measure apoptosis rate. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential levels. Western blots were applied to detect expression of cytochrome c, total and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These results indicate that the combination of curcumin and quercetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Notably, effect of combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin on gastric cancer MGC-803 cells is stronger than that of individual treatment, indicating that curcumin and quercetin combinations have potential as anti-gastric cancer drugs for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11508-11523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611508
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited
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Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-TW 01 and NPC-TW 04) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Migration of cancer cells was also suppressed by PIRE. In addition, PIRE significantly increased the occurrence of the cells in sub-G1 phase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that PIRE significantly increased apoptosis in NPC cells. The apoptotic process triggered by PIRE involved up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, the p53 protein was up-regulated by PIRE in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in NPC cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Capacities and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Endemic Nolana Species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11490-11507; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611490
Received: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode
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The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization mass analysis (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) and spectroscopic methods. The phenolic fingerprints obtained for the plants were compared and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and quantification of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty phenolics were identified for the first time for these species, mostly phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, together with three saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and arachidic acids). Nolana ramosissima showed the highest antioxidant activity (26.35 ± 1.02 μg/mL, 116.07 ± 3.42 μM Trolox equivalents/g dry weight and 81.23% ± 3.77% of inhibition in the DPPH, FRAP and scavenging activity (SA) assays, respectively), followed by N. aplocaryoides (85.19 ± 1.64 μg/mL, 65.87 ± 2.33 μM TE/g DW and 53.27% ± 3.07%) and N. leptophylla (124.71 ± 3.01, 44.23 ± 5.18 μM TE/g DW and 38.63% ± 1.85%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Plant Alkaloid (Emetine) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication by Interfering with Reverse Transcriptase Activity
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11474-11489; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611474
Received: 10 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ipecac alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced in the medicinal plant Psychotria ipecacuanha. Emetine is the main alkaloid of ipecac and one of the active compounds in syrup of Ipecac with emetic property. Here we evaluated emetine’s potential as an antiviral agent against
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Ipecac alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced in the medicinal plant Psychotria ipecacuanha. Emetine is the main alkaloid of ipecac and one of the active compounds in syrup of Ipecac with emetic property. Here we evaluated emetine’s potential as an antiviral agent against Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We performed in vitro Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Assay and Natural Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay (NERT) to evaluate HIV RT inhibition. Emetine molecular docking on HIV-1 RT was also analyzed. Phenotypic assays were performed in non-lymphocytic and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) with HIV-1 wild-type and HIV-harboring RT-resistant mutation to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (M184V). Our results showed that HIV-1 RT was blocked in the presence of emetine in both models: in vitro reactions with isolated HIV-1 RT and intravirion, measured by NERT. Emetine revealed a strong potential of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in both cellular models, reaching 80% of reduction in HIV-1 infection, with low cytotoxic effect. Emetine also blocked HIV-1 infection of RT M184V mutant. These results suggest that emetine is able to penetrate in intact HIV particles, and bind and block reverse transcription reaction, suggesting that it can be used as anti-HIV microbicide. Taken together, our findings provide additional pharmacological information on the potential therapeutic effects of emetine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Plasmodium falciparum Thioredoxin Reductase (PfTrxR) and Its Role as a Target for New Antimalarial Discovery
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11459-11473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611459
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing resistance to current antimalarial drugs is a major concern for global public health. The pressing need for new antimalarials has led to an increase in research focused on the Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), an enzyme needed
[...] Read more.
The growing resistance to current antimalarial drugs is a major concern for global public health. The pressing need for new antimalarials has led to an increase in research focused on the Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), an enzyme needed to maintain redox equilibrium in Plasmodium species, is a promising target for new antimalarials. This review paper provides an overview of the structure and function of TrxR, discusses similarities and differences between the thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) of different Plasmodium species and the human forms of the enzyme, gives an overview of modeling Plasmodium infections in animals, and suggests the role of Trx functions in antimalarial drug resistance. TrxR of Plasmodium falciparum is a central focus of this paper since it is the only Plasmodium TrxR that has been crystallized and P. falciparum is the species that causes most malaria cases. It is anticipated that the information summarized here will give insight and stimulate new directions in which research might be most beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11432-11458; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611432
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is
[...] Read more.
According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of (E)-2-Styrylchromones and Flavones by Base-Catalyzed Cyclodehydration of the Appropriate β-Diketones Using Water as Solvent
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11418-11431; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611418
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A low cost, safe, clean and environmentally benign base-catalyzed cyclodehydration of appropriate β-diketones affording (E)-2-styrylchromones and flavones in good yields is disclosed. Water was used as solvent and the reactions were heated using classical and microwave heating methods, under open and
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A low cost, safe, clean and environmentally benign base-catalyzed cyclodehydration of appropriate β-diketones affording (E)-2-styrylchromones and flavones in good yields is disclosed. Water was used as solvent and the reactions were heated using classical and microwave heating methods, under open and closed vessel conditions. β-Diketones having electron-donating and withdrawing substituents were used to evaluate the reaction scope. The reaction products were isolated in high purity by simple filtration and recrystallization from ethanol, when using 800 mg of the starting diketone under classical reflux heating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier in Green Chemistry Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Large Set of Microsatellite Markers in Zapote Mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn) and Their Potential Use in the Study of the Species
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11400-11417; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611400
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pouteria sapota is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for its fungitoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, its genetics is mostly unknown, including aspects about its genetic diversity and domestication process. We did high-throughput sequencing of microsatellite-enriched
[...] Read more.
Pouteria sapota is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for its fungitoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, its genetics is mostly unknown, including aspects about its genetic diversity and domestication process. We did high-throughput sequencing of microsatellite-enriched libraries of P. sapota, generated 5223 contig DNA sequences, 1.8 Mbp, developed 368 microsatellites markers and tested them on 29 individuals from 10 populations (seven wild, three cultivated) from Mexico, its putative domestication center. Gene ontology BLAST analysis of the DNA sequences containing microsatellites showed potential association to physiological functions. Genetic diversity was slightly higher in cultivated than in the wild gene pool (HE = 0.41 and HE = 0.35, respectively), although modified Garza–Williamson Index and Bottleneck software showed evidence for a reduction in genetic diversity for the cultivated one. Neighbor Joining, 3D Principal Coordinates Analysis and assignment tests grouped most individuals according to their geographic origin but no clear separation was observed between wild or cultivated gene pools due to, perhaps, the existence of several admixed populations. The developed microsatellites have a great potential in genetic population and domestication studies of P. sapota but additional sampling will be necessary to better understand how the domestication process has impacted the genetic diversity of this fruit crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11387-11399; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611387
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and
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Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 1517 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
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Open AccessCommunication Covalently Cross-Linked Arabinoxylans Films for Debaryomyces hansenii Entrapment
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11373-11386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611373
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, wheat water extractable arabinoxylans (WEAX) were isolated and characterized, and their capability to form covalently cross-linked films in presence of Debaryomyces hansenii was evaluated. WEAX presented an arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.60, a ferulic acid and diferulic acid
[...] Read more.
In the present study, wheat water extractable arabinoxylans (WEAX) were isolated and characterized, and their capability to form covalently cross-linked films in presence of Debaryomyces hansenii was evaluated. WEAX presented an arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.60, a ferulic acid and diferulic acid content of 2.1 and 0.04 µg∙mg−1 WEAX, respectively and a Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectrum typical of WEAX. The intrinsic viscosity and viscosimetric molecular weight values for WEAX were 3.6 dL∙g−1 and 440 kDa, respectively. The gelation of WEAX (1% w/v) with and without D. hansenii (1 × 107 CFU∙cm2) was rheologically investigated by small amplitude oscillatory shear. The entrapment of D. hansenii decreased gel elasticity from 1.4 to 0.3 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions between WEAX chains. Covalently cross-linked WEAX films containing D. hansenii were prepared by casting. Scanning electron microscopy images show that WEAX films containing D. hansenii were porous and consisted of granular-like and fibre microstructures. Average tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus values dropped when D. hansenii was present in the film. Covalently cross-lined WEAX containing D. hansenii could be a suitable as a functional entrapping film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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