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Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11236-11256; doi:10.3390/molecules200611236

Understanding the Mechanism of Action of Triazine-Phosphonate Derivatives as Flame Retardants for Cotton Fabric

1
Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research, United States Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd. New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, 701 E. High St. Oxford, OH 45056, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Cellulose and Chitin Chemistry)
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Abstract

Countless hours of research and studies on triazine, phosphonate, and their combination have provided insightful information into their flame retardant properties on polymeric systems. However, a limited number of studies shed light on the mechanism of flame retardancy of their combination on cotton fabrics. The purpose of this research is to gain an understanding of the thermal degradation process of two triazine-phosphonate derivatives on cotton fabric. The investigation included the preparation of diethyl 4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylphosphonate (TPN1) and dimethyl (4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yloxy) methyl phosphonate (TPN3), their application on fabric materials, and the studies of their thermal degradation mechanism. The studies examined chemical components in both solid and gas phases by using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) spectroscopy, and 31P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (31P solid state NMR), in addition to the computational studies of bond dissociation energy (BDE). Despite a few differences in their decomposition, TPN1 and TPN3 produce one common major product that is believed to help reduce the flammability of the fabric. View Full-Text
Keywords: triazine-phosphonate; thermal degradation; mechanism; ATR-IR; TGA-FTIR; 31P solid state NMR; phosphoric acid triazine-phosphonate; thermal degradation; mechanism; ATR-IR; TGA-FTIR; 31P solid state NMR; phosphoric acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, M.M.; Al-Abdul-Wahid, M.S.; Fontenot, K.R.; Graves, E.E.; Chang, S.; Condon, B.D.; Grimm, C.C.; Lorigan, G.A. Understanding the Mechanism of Action of Triazine-Phosphonate Derivatives as Flame Retardants for Cotton Fabric. Molecules 2015, 20, 11236-11256.

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