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Special Issue "Sensors and Sensing in Indoor Localization, Tracking, Navigation and Activity Monitoring"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jesús Ureña

Department of Electronics, School of Engineering, University of Alcala, Campus Universitario s/n, 28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ultrasonic signal processing; Local Positioning Systems (LPSs); mobile robots;, electronic control, tracking and navigation; daily live monitoring; algorithm implementation on software and hardware
Guest Editor
Dr. Álvaro Hernández Alonso

Department of Electronics, School of Engineering, University of Alcala, Campus Universitario s/n, E-28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: ultrasonic sensory systems; Local Positioning Systems (LPSs); embedded systems; electronic design
Guest Editor
Dr. Juan Jesús García Domínguez

Department of Electronics, School of Engineering, University of Alcala, Campus Universitario s/n, 28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: ^local positioning systems; pedestrian dead reckoning; daily live monitoring; body sensor networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Indoor localization has become a key issue for emerging location-based applications (LBA) in many activity areas. Different technologies and strategies, sometimes including their fusion, compete and/or collaborate to provide a solution to the indoor localization problem. Most times, the selection of a certain system depends on the final application that imposes different constraints, such as accuracy, granularity, coverage area, ease of deployment, calibration and reconfiguration, cost, etc. Large-scale deployment of such location systems needs a network support for different aspects: availability and accessibility, configurability and scalability, privacy, security, etc. Definitely, this strategic topic will lead to technological innovations that have a great impact on the daily activities of people in the coming years, in areas such as health and independent living, home and building automation, leisure, security, etc.

This Special Issue is devoted to new research results and developments in the area of sensors and technologies for Indoor Localization Systems (ILS), which include RF, IR, ultrasonic, magnetic, optical, inertial or other particular systems, as well as the positioning strategies and algorithms, including sensor fusion and networking. As the final application may play an important role from the very initial stages of the system design and deployment, we are also interested in ILS applications, for instance in object tracking, navigation of robots or people, and activity monitoring.

Prof. Dr. Jesús Ureña
Dr. Álvaro Hernández Alonso
Dr. Juan Jesús García Domínguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensors and technologies for Indoor Localization Systems (ILS)
  • Positioning strategies and algorithms; sensor fusion and networking.
  • System deployment and maintenance
  • Mobile Robot Navigation with ILS
  • Object tracking
  • People assistance and activity monitoring
  • Other ILS applications

Published Papers (33 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Pose Estimation of a Mobile Robot Based on Fusion of IMU Data and Vision Data Using an Extended Kalman Filter
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2164; doi:10.3390/s17102164
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Using a single sensor to determine the pose estimation of a device cannot give accurate results. This paper presents a fusion of an inertial sensor of six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) which comprises the 3-axis of an accelerometer and the 3-axis of a
[...] Read more.
Using a single sensor to determine the pose estimation of a device cannot give accurate results. This paper presents a fusion of an inertial sensor of six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) which comprises the 3-axis of an accelerometer and the 3-axis of a gyroscope, and a vision to determine a low-cost and accurate position for an autonomous mobile robot. For vision, a monocular vision-based object detection algorithm speeded-up robust feature (SURF) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithms were integrated and used to recognize a sample object in several images taken. As against the conventional method that depend on point-tracking, RANSAC uses an iterative method to estimate the parameters of a mathematical model from a set of captured data which contains outliers. With SURF and RANSAC, improved accuracy is certain; this is because of their ability to find interest points (features) under different viewing conditions using a Hessain matrix. This approach is proposed because of its simple implementation, low cost, and improved accuracy. With an extended Kalman filter (EKF), data from inertial sensors and a camera were fused to estimate the position and orientation of the mobile robot. All these sensors were mounted on the mobile robot to obtain an accurate localization. An indoor experiment was carried out to validate and evaluate the performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast in computation, reliable and robust, and can be considered for practical applications. The performance of the experiments was verified by the ground truth data and root mean square errors (RMSEs). Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Energy-Efficient Approach for Human Activity Recognition
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2064; doi:10.3390/s17092064
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient approach for mobile activity recognition system (ARS) to detect human activities. The proposed energy-efficient ARS, using low sampling rates, can achieve high recognition accuracy and low energy consumption. A novel classifier that integrates hierarchical support
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient approach for mobile activity recognition system (ARS) to detect human activities. The proposed energy-efficient ARS, using low sampling rates, can achieve high recognition accuracy and low energy consumption. A novel classifier that integrates hierarchical support vector machine and context-based classification (HSVMCC) is presented to achieve a high accuracy of activity recognition when the sampling rate is less than the activity frequency, i.e., the Nyquist sampling theorem is not satisfied. We tested the proposed energy-efficient approach with the data collected from 20 volunteers (14 males and six females) and the average recognition accuracy of around 96.0% was achieved. Results show that using a low sampling rate of 1Hz can save 17.3% and 59.6% of energy compared with the sampling rates of 5 Hz and 50 Hz. The proposed low sampling rate approach can greatly reduce the power consumption while maintaining high activity recognition accuracy. The composition of power consumption in online ARS is also investigated in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Landmark-Based Homing Navigation Using Omnidirectional Depth Information
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1928; doi:10.3390/s17081928
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
A number of landmark-based navigation algorithms have been studied using feature extraction over the visual information. In this paper, we apply the distance information of the surrounding environment in a landmark navigation model. We mount a depth sensor on a mobile robot, in
[...] Read more.
A number of landmark-based navigation algorithms have been studied using feature extraction over the visual information. In this paper, we apply the distance information of the surrounding environment in a landmark navigation model. We mount a depth sensor on a mobile robot, in order to obtain omnidirectional distance information. The surrounding environment is represented as a circular form of landmark vectors, which forms a snapshot. The depth snapshots at the current position and the target position are compared to determine the homing direction, inspired by the snapshot model. Here, we suggest a holistic view of panoramic depth information for homing navigation where each sample point is taken as a landmark. The results are shown in a vector map of homing vectors. The performance of the suggested method is evaluated based on the angular errors and the homing success rate. Omnidirectional depth information about the surrounding environment can be a promising source of landmark homing navigation. We demonstrate the results that a holistic approach with omnidirectional depth information shows effective homing navigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of ToA-Based Positioning Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Targets with Low Ranging Measurements
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1915; doi:10.3390/s17081915
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) for emergency responders is a challenging field attracting researchers worldwide. When compared with traditional indoor positioning solutions, the IPSs for emergency responders stand out as they have to operate in harsh and unstructured environments. From the various technologies available
[...] Read more.
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) for emergency responders is a challenging field attracting researchers worldwide. When compared with traditional indoor positioning solutions, the IPSs for emergency responders stand out as they have to operate in harsh and unstructured environments. From the various technologies available for the localization process, ultra-wide band (UWB) is a promising technology for such systems due to its robust signaling in harsh environments, through-wall propagation and high-resolution ranging. However, during emergency responders’ missions, the availability of UWB signals is generally low (the nodes have to be deployed as the emergency responders enter a building) and can be affected by the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. In this paper, the performance of four typical distance-based positioning algorithms (Analytical, Least Squares, Taylor Series, and Extended Kalman Filter methods) with only three ranging measurements is assessed based on a COTS UWB transceiver. These algorithms are compared based on accuracy, precision and root mean square error (RMSE). The algorithms were evaluated under two environments with different propagation conditions (an atrium and a lab), for static and mobile devices, and under the human body’s influence. A NLOS identification and error mitigation algorithm was also used to improve the ranging measurements. The results show that the Extended Kalman Filter outperforms the other algorithms in almost every scenario, but it is affected by the low measurement rate of the UWB system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hitchhiking Robots: A Collaborative Approach for Efficient Multi-Robot Navigation in Indoor Environments
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1878; doi:10.3390/s17081878
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
PDF Full-text (4755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hitchhiking is a means of transportation gained by asking other people for a (free) ride. We developed a multi-robot system which is the first of its kind to incorporate hitchhiking in robotics, and discuss its advantages. Our method allows the hitchhiker robot to
[...] Read more.
Hitchhiking is a means of transportation gained by asking other people for a (free) ride. We developed a multi-robot system which is the first of its kind to incorporate hitchhiking in robotics, and discuss its advantages. Our method allows the hitchhiker robot to skip redundant computations in navigation like path planning, localization, obstacle avoidance, and map update by completely relying on the driver robot. This allows the hitchhiker robot, which performs only visual servoing, to save computation while navigating on the common path with the driver robot. The driver robot, in the proposed system performs all the heavy computations in navigation and updates the hitchhiker about the current localized positions and new obstacle positions in the map. The proposed system is robust to recover from `driver-lost’ scenario which occurs due to visual servoing failure. We demonstrate robot hitchhiking in real environments considering factors like service-time and task priority with different start and goal configurations of the driver and hitchhiker robots. We also discuss the admissible characteristics of the hitchhiker, when hitchhiking should be allowed and when not, through experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stairs and Doors Recognition as Natural Landmarks Based on Clouds of 3D Edge-Points from RGB-D Sensors for Mobile Robot Localization
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1824; doi:10.3390/s17081824
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Natural landmarks are the main features in the next step of the research in localization of mobile robot platforms. The identification and recognition of these landmarks are crucial to better localize a robot. To help solving this problem, this work proposes an approach
[...] Read more.
Natural landmarks are the main features in the next step of the research in localization of mobile robot platforms. The identification and recognition of these landmarks are crucial to better localize a robot. To help solving this problem, this work proposes an approach for the identification and recognition of natural marks included in the environment using images from RGB-D (Red, Green, Blue, Depth) sensors. In the identification step, a structural analysis of the natural landmarks that are present in the environment is performed. The extraction of edge points of these landmarks is done using the 3D point cloud obtained from the RGB-D sensor. These edge points are smoothed through the S l 0 algorithm, which minimizes the standard deviation of the normals at each point. Then, the second step of the proposed algorithm begins, which is the proper recognition of the natural landmarks. This recognition step is done as a real-time algorithm that extracts the points referring to the filtered edges and determines to which structure they belong to in the current scenario: stairs or doors. Finally, the geometrical characteristics that are intrinsic to the doors and stairs are identified. The approach proposed here has been validated with real robot experiments. The performed tests verify the efficacy of our proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Indoor Positioning Model Based on WLAN-Fingerprinting for Dynamic and Multi-Floor Environments
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1789; doi:10.3390/s17081789
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints
[...] Read more.
The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS) differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS) based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Acquisition Scheme Based on a Matched Filter for Novel Communication and Navigation Fusion Signals
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1766; doi:10.3390/s17081766
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
In order to enhance the positioning capability of terrestrial networks, a novel communication and navigation fusion signal is proposed. The novel signal multiplexes the communication and navigation signal in the same frequency band, and the navigation system is superimposed on the original communication
[...] Read more.
In order to enhance the positioning capability of terrestrial networks, a novel communication and navigation fusion signal is proposed. The novel signal multiplexes the communication and navigation signal in the same frequency band, and the navigation system is superimposed on the original communication system. However, the application of pseudorandom noise (PRN) sequences in the navigation system is limited by the communication clock period. Taking the application of PRN sequences limited by the clock period as objects, the present study analyzes truncated PRN (TPRN) sequences. PRN sequences with a TPRN sequence as the navigation signal can overcome the communication system clock period limitation. Then, a matched filter algorithm with double detection (MFADD) is proposed to acquire the novel signal. The matched filter method is applied to the proposed algorithm to determine the start code phase of TPRN. Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the designed signal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Framework to Improve Energy Efficient Behaviour at Home through Activity and Context Monitoring
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1749; doi:10.3390/s17081749
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
Real-time Localization Systems have been postulated as one of the most appropriated technologies for the development of applications that provide customized services. These systems provide us with the ability to locate and trace users and, among other features, they help identify behavioural patterns
[...] Read more.
Real-time Localization Systems have been postulated as one of the most appropriated technologies for the development of applications that provide customized services. These systems provide us with the ability to locate and trace users and, among other features, they help identify behavioural patterns and habits. Moreover, the implementation of policies that will foster energy saving in homes is a complex task that involves the use of this type of systems. Although there are multiple proposals in this area, the implementation of frameworks that combine technologies and use Social Computing to influence user behaviour have not yet reached any significant savings in terms of energy. In this work, the CAFCLA framework (Context-Aware Framework for Collaborative Learning Applications) is used to develop a recommendation system for home users. The proposed system integrates a Real-Time Localization System and Wireless Sensor Networks, making it possible to develop applications that work under the umbrella of Social Computing. The implementation of an experimental use case aided efficient energy use, achieving savings of 17%. Moreover, the conducted case study pointed to the possibility of attaining good energy consumption habits in the long term. This can be done thanks to the system’s real time and historical localization, tracking and contextual data, based on which customized recommendations are generated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Indoor Tracking and Activity Recognition Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1738; doi:10.3390/s17081738
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Indoor human tracking and activity recognition are fundamental yet coherent problems for ambient assistive living. In this paper, we propose a method to address these two critical issues simultaneously. We construct a wireless sensor network (WSN), and the sensor nodes within WSN consist
[...] Read more.
Indoor human tracking and activity recognition are fundamental yet coherent problems for ambient assistive living. In this paper, we propose a method to address these two critical issues simultaneously. We construct a wireless sensor network (WSN), and the sensor nodes within WSN consist of pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor arrays. To capture the tempo-spatial information of the human target, the field of view (FOV) of each PIR sensor is modulated by masks. A modified partial filter algorithm is utilized to decode the location of the human target. To exploit the synergy between the location and activity, we design a two-layer random forest (RF) classifier. The initial activity recognition result of the first layer is refined by the second layer RF by incorporating various effective features. We conducted experiments in a mock apartment. The mean localization error of our system is about 0.85 m. For five kinds of daily activities, the mean accuracy for 10-fold cross-validation is above 92%. The encouraging results indicate the effectiveness of our system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1582; doi:10.3390/s17071582
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks,
[...] Read more.
Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Landmark-Based Drift Compensation Algorithm for Inertial Pedestrian Navigation
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1555; doi:10.3390/s17071555
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
PDF Full-text (13698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The navigation of pedestrians based on inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, has experienced a great growth over the last years. However, the noise of medium- and low-cost sensors causes a high error in the orientation estimation, particularly in the yaw angle. This
[...] Read more.
The navigation of pedestrians based on inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, has experienced a great growth over the last years. However, the noise of medium- and low-cost sensors causes a high error in the orientation estimation, particularly in the yaw angle. This error, called drift, is due to the bias of the z-axis gyroscope and other slow changing errors, such as temperature variations. We propose a seamless landmark-based drift compensation algorithm that only uses inertial measurements. The proposed algorithm adds a great value to the state of the art, because the vast majority of the drift elimination algorithms apply corrections to the estimated position, but not to the yaw angle estimation. Instead, the presented algorithm computes the drift value and uses it to prevent yaw errors and therefore position errors. In order to achieve this goal, a detector of landmarks, i.e., corners and stairs, and an association algorithm have been developed. The results of the experiments show that it is possible to reliably detect corners and stairs using only inertial measurements eliminating the need that the user takes any action, e.g., pressing a button. Associations between re-visited landmarks are successfully made taking into account the uncertainty of the position. After that, the drift is computed out of all associations and used during a post-processing stage to obtain a low-drifted yaw angle estimation, that leads to successfully drift compensated trajectories. The proposed algorithm has been tested with quasi-error-free turn rate measurements introducing known biases and with medium-cost gyroscopes in 3D indoor and outdoor scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle TrackCC: A Practical Wireless Indoor Localization System Based on Less-Expensive Chips
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1391; doi:10.3390/s17061391
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper aims at proposing a new wireless indoor localization system (ILS), called TrackCC, based on a commercial type of low-power system-on-chip (SoC), nRF24LE1. This type of chip has only l output power levels and acute fluctuation for a received minimum power level
[...] Read more.
This paper aims at proposing a new wireless indoor localization system (ILS), called TrackCC, based on a commercial type of low-power system-on-chip (SoC), nRF24LE1. This type of chip has only l output power levels and acute fluctuation for a received minimum power level in operation, which give rise to many practical challenges for designing localization algorithms. In order to address these challenges, we exploit the Markov theory to construct a ( l + 1 ) × ( l + 1 ) -sized state transition matrix to remove the fluctuation, and then propose a priority-based pattern matching algorithm to search for the most similar match in the signal map to estimate the real position of unknown nodes. The experimental results show that, compared to two existing wireless ILSs, LANDMARC and SAIL, which have meter level positioning accuracy, the proposed TrackCC can achieve the decimeter level accuracy on average in both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) senarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Sequential Optimization Calibration Algorithm for Near-Field Source Localization
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1405; doi:10.3390/s17061405
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper considers the near-field source location problem for a nonuniform linear array (non-ULA) in the presence of sensor gain and phase errors. A sequential optimization calibration method is proposed to simultaneously estimate the gain and phase errors as well as the locations
[...] Read more.
This paper considers the near-field source location problem for a nonuniform linear array (non-ULA) in the presence of sensor gain and phase errors. A sequential optimization calibration method is proposed to simultaneously estimate the gain and phase errors as well as the locations of calibration sources involving the ranges and the azimuths by exploiting some imprecise a-priori knowledge of calibration sources. At each iteration of the proposed method, the source locations, and the gain and phase errors are obtained iteratively. Finally, at the analysis stage, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique using some numerical simulations. Results show that the proposed algorithm shares the capability to jointly estimate the source locations and the errors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Empirical Study of the Transmission Power Setting for Bluetooth-Based Indoor Localization Mechanisms
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1318; doi:10.3390/s17061318
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
PDF Full-text (5571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a great interest in developing accurate wireless indoor localization mechanisms enabling the implementation of many consumer-oriented services. Among the many proposals, wireless indoor localization mechanisms based on the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) are being widely explored. Most studies have
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a great interest in developing accurate wireless indoor localization mechanisms enabling the implementation of many consumer-oriented services. Among the many proposals, wireless indoor localization mechanisms based on the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) are being widely explored. Most studies have focused on the evaluation of the capabilities of different mobile device brands and wireless network technologies. Furthermore, different parameters and algorithms have been proposed as a means of improving the accuracy of wireless-based localization mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the tuning of the RSSI fingerprint to be used in the implementation of a Bluetooth Low Energy 4.0 (BLE4.0) Bluetooth localization mechanism. Following a holistic approach, we start by assessing the capabilities of two Bluetooth sensor/receiver devices. We then evaluate the relevance of the RSSI fingerprint reported by each BLE4.0 beacon operating at various transmission power levels using feature selection techniques. Based on our findings, we use two classification algorithms in order to improve the setting of the transmission power levels of each of the BLE4.0 beacons. Our main findings show that our proposal can greatly improve the localization accuracy by setting a custom transmission power level for each BLE4.0 beacon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Indoor Trajectory Tracking Scheme Based on Delaunay Triangulation and Heuristic Information in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1275; doi:10.3390/s17061275
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Object tracking and detection is one of the most significant research areas for wireless sensor networks. Existing indoor trajectory tracking schemes in wireless sensor networks are based on continuous localization and moving object data mining. Indoor trajectory tracking based on the received signal
[...] Read more.
Object tracking and detection is one of the most significant research areas for wireless sensor networks. Existing indoor trajectory tracking schemes in wireless sensor networks are based on continuous localization and moving object data mining. Indoor trajectory tracking based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) has received increased attention because it has low cost and requires no special infrastructure. However, RSSI tracking introduces uncertainty because of the inaccuracies of measurement instruments and the irregularities (unstable, multipath, diffraction) of wireless signal transmissions in indoor environments. Heuristic information includes some key factors for trajectory tracking procedures. This paper proposes a novel trajectory tracking scheme based on Delaunay triangulation and heuristic information (TTDH). In this scheme, the entire field is divided into a series of triangular regions. The common side of adjacent triangular regions is regarded as a regional boundary. Our scheme detects heuristic information related to a moving object’s trajectory, including boundaries and triangular regions. Then, the trajectory is formed by means of a dynamic time-warping position-fingerprint-matching algorithm with heuristic information constraints. Field experiments show that the average error distance of our scheme is less than 1.5 m, and that error does not accumulate among the regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1272; doi:10.3390/s17061272
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
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In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A LiDAR and IMU Integrated Indoor Navigation System for UAVs and Its Application in Real-Time Pipeline Classification
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1268; doi:10.3390/s17061268
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Mapping the environment of a vehicle and localizing a vehicle within that unknown environment are complex issues. Although many approaches based on various types of sensory inputs and computational concepts have been successfully utilized for ground robot localization, there is difficulty in localizing
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Mapping the environment of a vehicle and localizing a vehicle within that unknown environment are complex issues. Although many approaches based on various types of sensory inputs and computational concepts have been successfully utilized for ground robot localization, there is difficulty in localizing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) due to variation in altitude and motion dynamics. This paper proposes a robust and efficient indoor mapping and localization solution for a UAV integrated with low-cost Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. Considering the advantage of the typical geometric structure of indoor environments, the planar position of UAVs can be efficiently calculated from a point-to-point scan matching algorithm using measurements from a horizontally scanning primary LiDAR. The altitude of the UAV with respect to the floor can be estimated accurately using a vertically scanning secondary LiDAR scanner, which is mounted orthogonally to the primary LiDAR. Furthermore, a Kalman filter is used to derive the 3D position by fusing primary and secondary LiDAR data. Additionally, this work presents a novel method for its application in the real-time classification of a pipeline in an indoor map by integrating the proposed navigation approach. Classification of the pipeline is based on the pipe radius estimation considering the region of interest (ROI) and the typical angle. The ROI is selected by finding the nearest neighbors of the selected seed point in the pipeline point cloud, and the typical angle is estimated with the directional histogram. Experimental results are provided to determine the feasibility of the proposed navigation system and its integration with real-time application in industrial plant engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Compressive Sensing and Received Signal Strength-Based Target Localization Algorithm with Unknown Target Population for Wireless Local Area Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1246; doi:10.3390/s17061246
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
In this paper a two-phase compressive sensing (CS) and received signal strength (RSS)-based target localization approach is proposed to improve position accuracy by dealing with the unknown target population and the effect of grid dimensions on position error. In the coarse localization phase,
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In this paper a two-phase compressive sensing (CS) and received signal strength (RSS)-based target localization approach is proposed to improve position accuracy by dealing with the unknown target population and the effect of grid dimensions on position error. In the coarse localization phase, by formulating target localization as a sparse signal recovery problem, grids with recovery vector components greater than a threshold are chosen as the candidate target grids. In the fine localization phase, by partitioning each candidate grid, the target position in a grid is iteratively refined by using the minimum residual error rule and the least-squares technique. When all the candidate target grids are iteratively partitioned and the measurement matrix is updated, the recovery vector is re-estimated. Threshold-based detection is employed again to determine the target grids and hence the target population. As a consequence, both the target population and the position estimation accuracy can be significantly improved. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves the best accuracy among all the algorithms compared. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vital Sign Monitoring and Mobile Phone Usage Detection Using IR-UWB Radar for Intended Use in Car Crash Prevention
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1240; doi:10.3390/s17061240
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
In order to avoid car crashes, active safety systems are becoming more and more important. Many crashes are caused due to driver drowsiness or mobile phone usage. Detecting the drowsiness of the driver is very important for the safety of a car. Monitoring
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In order to avoid car crashes, active safety systems are becoming more and more important. Many crashes are caused due to driver drowsiness or mobile phone usage. Detecting the drowsiness of the driver is very important for the safety of a car. Monitoring of vital signs such as respiration rate and heart rate is important to determine the occurrence of driver drowsiness. In this paper, robust vital signs monitoring through impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar is discussed. We propose a new algorithm that can estimate the vital signs even if there is motion caused by the driving activities. We analyzed the whole fast time vital detection region and found the signals at those fast time locations that have useful information related to the vital signals. We segmented those signals into sub-signals and then constructed the desired vital signal using the correlation method. In this way, the vital signs of the driver can be monitored noninvasively, which can be used by researchers to detect the drowsiness of the driver which is related to the vital signs i.e., respiration and heart rate. In addition, texting on a mobile phone during driving may cause visual, manual or cognitive distraction of the driver. In order to reduce accidents caused by a distracted driver, we proposed an algorithm that can detect perfectly a driver's mobile phone usage even if there are various motions of the driver in the car or changes in background objects. These novel techniques, which monitor vital signs associated with drowsiness and detect phone usage before a driver makes a mistake, may be very helpful in developing techniques for preventing a car crash. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LOCALI: Calibration-Free Systematic Localization Approach for Indoor Positioning
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1213; doi:10.3390/s17061213
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Recent advancements in indoor positioning systems are based on infrastructure-free solutions, aimed at improving the location accuracy in complex indoor environments without the use of specialized resources. A popular infrastructure-free solution for indoor positioning is a calibration-based positioning, commonly known as fingerprinting. Fingerprinting
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Recent advancements in indoor positioning systems are based on infrastructure-free solutions, aimed at improving the location accuracy in complex indoor environments without the use of specialized resources. A popular infrastructure-free solution for indoor positioning is a calibration-based positioning, commonly known as fingerprinting. Fingerprinting solutions require extensive and error-free surveys of environments to build radio-map databases, which play a key role in position estimation. Fingerprinting also requires random updates of the database, when there are significant changes in the environment or a decrease in the accuracy. The calibration of the fingerprinting database is a time-consuming and laborious effort that prevents the extensive adoption of this technique. In this paper, we present a systematic LOCALIzation approach, “LOCALI”, for indoor positioning, which does not require a calibration database and extensive updates. The LOCALI exploits the floor plan/wall map of the environment to estimate the target position by generating radio maps by integrating path-losses over certain trajectories in complex indoor environments, where triangulation using time information or the received signal strength level is highly erroneous due to the fading effects caused by multi-path propagation or absorption by environmental elements or varying antenna alignment. Experimental results demonstrate that by using the map information and environmental parameters, a significant level of accuracy in indoor positioning can be achieved. Moreover, this process requires considerably lesser effort compared to the calibration-based techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Real-Time Reference Key Frame Scan Matching Method
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1060; doi:10.3390/s17051060
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicles represent an effective technology for indoor search and rescue operations. Typically, most indoor missions’ environments would be unknown, unstructured, and/or dynamic. Navigation of UAVs in such environments is addressed by simultaneous localization and mapping approach using either local or global
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Unmanned aerial vehicles represent an effective technology for indoor search and rescue operations. Typically, most indoor missions’ environments would be unknown, unstructured, and/or dynamic. Navigation of UAVs in such environments is addressed by simultaneous localization and mapping approach using either local or global approaches. Both approaches suffer from accumulated errors and high processing time due to the iterative nature of the scan matching method. Moreover, point-to-point scan matching is prone to outlier association processes. This paper proposes a low-cost novel method for 2D real-time scan matching based on a reference key frame (RKF). RKF is a hybrid scan matching technique comprised of feature-to-feature and point-to-point approaches. This algorithm aims at mitigating errors accumulation using the key frame technique, which is inspired from video streaming broadcast process. The algorithm depends on the iterative closest point algorithm during the lack of linear features which is typically exhibited in unstructured environments. The algorithm switches back to the RKF once linear features are detected. To validate and evaluate the algorithm, the mapping performance and time consumption are compared with various algorithms in static and dynamic environments. The performance of the algorithm exhibits promising navigational, mapping results and very short computational time, that indicates the potential use of the new algorithm with real-time systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Orthogonal Chirp-Based Ultrasonic Positioning
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 976; doi:10.3390/s17050976
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a chirp based ultrasonic positioning system (UPS) using orthogonal chirp waveforms. In the proposed method, multiple transmitters can simultaneously transmit chirp signals, as a result, it can efficiently utilize the entire available frequency spectrum. The fundamental idea behind the proposed
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This paper presents a chirp based ultrasonic positioning system (UPS) using orthogonal chirp waveforms. In the proposed method, multiple transmitters can simultaneously transmit chirp signals, as a result, it can efficiently utilize the entire available frequency spectrum. The fundamental idea behind the proposed multiple access scheme is to utilize the oversampling methodology of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and orthogonality of the discrete frequency components of a chirp waveform. In addition, the proposed orthogonal chirp waveforms also have all the advantages of a classical chirp waveform. Firstly, the performance of the waveforms is investigated through correlation analysis and then, in an indoor environment, evaluated through simulations and experiments for ultrasonic (US) positioning. For an operational range of approximately 1000 mm, the positioning root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) &90% error were 4.54 mm and 6.68 mm respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bayesian Device-Free Localization and Tracking in a Binary RF Sensor Network
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 969; doi:10.3390/s17050969
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Received-signal-strength-based (RSS-based) device-free localization (DFL) is a promising technique since it is able to localize the person without attaching any electronic device. This technology requires measuring the RSS of all links in the network constituted by several radio frequency (RF) sensors. It is
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Received-signal-strength-based (RSS-based) device-free localization (DFL) is a promising technique since it is able to localize the person without attaching any electronic device. This technology requires measuring the RSS of all links in the network constituted by several radio frequency (RF) sensors. It is an energy-intensive task, especially when the RF sensors work in traditional work mode, in which the sensors directly send raw RSS measurements of all links to a base station (BS). The traditional work mode is unfavorable for the power constrained RF sensors because the amount of data delivery increases dramatically as the number of sensors grows. In this paper, we propose a binary work mode in which RF sensors send the link states instead of raw RSS measurements to the BS, which remarkably reduces the amount of data delivery. Moreover, we develop two localization methods for the binary work mode which corresponds to stationary and moving target, respectively. The first localization method is formulated based on grid-based maximum likelihood (GML), which is able to achieve global optimum with low online computational complexity. The second localization method, however, uses particle filter (PF) to track the target when constant snapshots of link stats are available. Real experiments in two different kinds of environments were conducted to evaluate the proposed methods. Experimental results show that the localization and tracking performance under the binary work mode is comparable to the those in traditional work mode while the energy efficiency improves considerably. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Platform Architecture for Decentralized Positioning Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 957; doi:10.3390/s17050957
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
A platform architecture for positioning systems is essential for the realization of a flexible localization system, which interacts with other systems and supports various positioning technologies and algorithms. The decentralized processing of a position enables pushing the application-level knowledge into a mobile station
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A platform architecture for positioning systems is essential for the realization of a flexible localization system, which interacts with other systems and supports various positioning technologies and algorithms. The decentralized processing of a position enables pushing the application-level knowledge into a mobile station and avoids the communication with a central unit such as a server or a base station. In addition, the calculation of the position on low-cost and resource-constrained devices presents a challenge due to the limited computing, storage capacity, as well as power supply. Therefore, we propose a platform architecture that enables the design of a system with the reusability of the components, extensibility (e.g., with other positioning technologies) and interoperability. Furthermore, the position is computed on a low-cost device such as a microcontroller, which simultaneously performs additional tasks such as data collecting or preprocessing based on an operating system. The platform architecture is designed, implemented and evaluated on the basis of two positioning systems: a field strength system and a time of arrival-based positioning system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved BLE Indoor Localization with Kalman-Based Fusion: An Experimental Study
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 951; doi:10.3390/s17050951
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Indoor positioning has grasped great attention in recent years. A number of efforts have been exerted to achieve high positioning accuracy. However, there exists no technology that proves its efficacy in various situations. In this paper, we propose a novel positioning method based
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Indoor positioning has grasped great attention in recent years. A number of efforts have been exerted to achieve high positioning accuracy. However, there exists no technology that proves its efficacy in various situations. In this paper, we propose a novel positioning method based on fusing trilateration and dead reckoning. We employ Kalman filtering as a position fusion algorithm. Moreover, we adopt an Android device with Bluetooth Low Energy modules as the communication platform to avoid excessive energy consumption and to improve the stability of the received signal strength. To further improve the positioning accuracy, we take the environmental context information into account while generating the position fixes. Extensive experiments in a testbed are conducted to examine the performance of three approaches: trilateration, dead reckoning and the fusion method. Additionally, the influence of the knowledge of the environmental context is also examined. Finally, our proposed fusion method outperforms both trilateration and dead reckoning in terms of accuracy: experimental results show that the Kalman-based fusion, for our settings, achieves a positioning accuracy of less than one meter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Refining Passive Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Radio Fingerprinting
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 871; doi:10.3390/s17040871
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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Abstract
Indoor positioning methods based on fingerprinting and radio signals rely on the quality of the radio map. For example, for room-level classification purposes, it is required that the signal observations related to each room exhibit significant differences in their RSSI values. However, it
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Indoor positioning methods based on fingerprinting and radio signals rely on the quality of the radio map. For example, for room-level classification purposes, it is required that the signal observations related to each room exhibit significant differences in their RSSI values. However, it is difficult to verify and visualize that separability since radio maps are constituted by multi-dimensional observations whose dimension is directly related to the number of access points or monitors being employed for localization purposes. In this paper, we propose a refinement cycle for passive indoor positioning systems, which is based on dimensionality reduction techniques, to evaluate the quality of a radio map. By means of these techniques and our own data representation, we have defined two different visualization methods to obtain graphical information about the quality of a particular radio map in terms of overlapping areas and outliers. That information will be useful to determine whether new monitors are required or some existing ones should be moved. We have performed an exhaustive experimental analysis based on a variety of different scenarios, some deployed by our own research group and others corresponding to a well-known existing dataset widely analyzed by the community, in order to validate our proposal. As we will show, among the different combinations of data representation methods and dimensionality reduction techniques that we discuss, we have found that there are some specific configurations that are more useful in order to perform the refinement process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Infrared Signal Reflections to Characterize Indoor Multipath Propagation
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 847; doi:10.3390/s17040847
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a model to characterize Infrared (IR) signal reflections on any kind of surface material, together with a simplified procedure to compute the model parameters. The model works within the framework of Local Positioning Systems (LPS) based on IR
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In this paper, we propose a model to characterize Infrared (IR) signal reflections on any kind of surface material, together with a simplified procedure to compute the model parameters. The model works within the framework of Local Positioning Systems (LPS) based on IR signals (IR-LPS) to evaluate the behavior of transmitted signal Multipaths (MP), which are the main cause of error in IR-LPS, and makes several contributions to mitigation methods. Current methods are based on physics, optics, geometry and empirical methods, but these do not meet our requirements because of the need to apply several different restrictions and employ complex tools. We propose a simplified model based on only two reflection components, together with a method for determining the model parameters based on 12 empirical measurements that are easily performed in the real environment where the IR-LPS is being applied. Our experimental results show that the model provides a comprehensive solution to the real behavior of IR MP, yielding small errors when comparing real and modeled data (the mean error ranges from 1% to 4% depending on the environment surface materials). Other state-of-the-art methods yielded mean errors ranging from 15% to 40% in test measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hand-Based Gesture Recognition for Vehicular Applications Using IR-UWB Radar
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 833; doi:10.3390/s17040833
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
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Abstract
Modern cars continue to offer more and more functionalities due to which they need a growing number of commands. As the driver tries to monitor the road and the graphic user interface simultaneously, his/her overall efficiency is reduced. In order to reduce the
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Modern cars continue to offer more and more functionalities due to which they need a growing number of commands. As the driver tries to monitor the road and the graphic user interface simultaneously, his/her overall efficiency is reduced. In order to reduce the visual attention necessary for monitoring, a gesture-based user interface is very important. In this paper, gesture recognition for a vehicle through impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar is discussed. The gestures can be used to control different electronic devices inside a vehicle. The gestures are based on human hand and finger motion. We have implemented a real-time version using only one radar sensor. Studies on gesture recognition using IR-UWB radar have rarely been carried out, and some studies are merely simple methods using the magnitude of the reflected signal or those whose performance deteriorates largely due to changes in distance or direction. In this study, we propose a new hand-based gesture recognition algorithm that works robustly against changes in distance or direction while responding only to defined gestures by ignoring meaningless motions. We used three independent features, i.e., variance of the probability density function (pdf) of the magnitude histogram, time of arrival (TOA) variation and the frequency of the reflected signal, to classify the gestures. A data fitting method is included to differentiate between gesture signals and unintended hand or body motions. We have used the clustering technique for the classification of the gestures. Moreover, the distance information is used as an additional input parameter to the clustering algorithm, such that the recognition technique will not be vulnerable to distance change. The hand-based gesture recognition proposed in this paper would be a key technology of future automobile user interfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Robust Trilateration Method Applied to Ultra-Wide Bandwidth Location Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 795; doi:10.3390/s17040795
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Due to the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multipath fading channel (MPF) of the wireless networks, the non-existence of the intersection point often occurs in the range-based localization methods, e.g., the centroid-based trilateration method. To alleviate the problem, a confidence-based intersection method which expands the
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Due to the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multipath fading channel (MPF) of the wireless networks, the non-existence of the intersection point often occurs in the range-based localization methods, e.g., the centroid-based trilateration method. To alleviate the problem, a confidence-based intersection method which expands the range of the circle within a certain confidence interval is proposed. In the method, the confidence interval is estimated based on the Cramér–Rao lower bound of the time of flight (TOF) measurement. Furthermore, an intersection determination method is proposed to select the intersection point with higher confidence level. The simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method in localization accuracy and robustness to noise compared to the conventional trilateration method, e.g., the centroid-based and least squares based trilateration methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 717; doi:10.3390/s17040717
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where
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Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality) has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Human Activity in Elderly People Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 351; doi:10.3390/s17020351
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 21 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
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Abstract
The ageing of the population, and their increasing wish of living independently, are motivating the development of welfare and healthcare models. Existing approaches based on the direct heath-monitoring using body sensor networks (BSN) are precise and accurate. Nonetheless, their intrusiveness causes non-acceptance. New
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The ageing of the population, and their increasing wish of living independently, are motivating the development of welfare and healthcare models. Existing approaches based on the direct heath-monitoring using body sensor networks (BSN) are precise and accurate. Nonetheless, their intrusiveness causes non-acceptance. New approaches seek the indirect monitoring through monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs), which proves to be a suitable solution. ADL monitoring systems use many heterogeneous sensors, are less intrusive, and are less expensive than BSN, however, the deployment and maintenance of wireless sensor networks (WSN) prevent them from a widespread acceptance. In this work, a novel technique to monitor the human activity, based on non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM), is presented. The proposal uses only smart meter data, which leads to minimum intrusiveness and a potential massive deployment at minimal cost. This could be the key to develop sustainable healthcare models for smart homes, capable of complying with the elderly people’ demands. This study also uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to provide a daily score of normality with regard to the regular behavior. This approach has been evaluated using real datasets and, additionally, a benchmarking against a Gaussian mixture model approach is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reliable Identification of Vehicle-Boarding Actions Based on Fuzzy Inference Syste
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 333; doi:10.3390/s17020333
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
Existing smartphone-based solutions to prevent distracted driving suffer from inadequate system designs that only recognize simple and clean vehicle-boarding actions, thereby failing to meet the required level of accuracy in real-life environments. In this paper, exploiting unique sensory features consistently monitored from a
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Existing smartphone-based solutions to prevent distracted driving suffer from inadequate system designs that only recognize simple and clean vehicle-boarding actions, thereby failing to meet the required level of accuracy in real-life environments. In this paper, exploiting unique sensory features consistently monitored from a broad range of complicated vehicle-boarding actions, we propose a reliable and accurate system based on fuzzy inference to classify the sides of vehicle entrancebyleveragingbuilt-insmartphonesensorsonly. Theresultsofourcomprehensiveevaluation on three vehicle types with four participants demonstrate that the proposed system achieves 91.1%∼94.0% accuracy, outperforming other methods by 26.9%∼38.4% and maintains at least 87.8 %accuracy regardless of smartphone positions and vehicle types. Full article
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