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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1915; doi:10.3390/s17081915

Performance Analysis of ToA-Based Positioning Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Targets with Low Ranging Measurements

1
Algoritmi Center, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
2
Center of Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract

Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) for emergency responders is a challenging field attracting researchers worldwide. When compared with traditional indoor positioning solutions, the IPSs for emergency responders stand out as they have to operate in harsh and unstructured environments. From the various technologies available for the localization process, ultra-wide band (UWB) is a promising technology for such systems due to its robust signaling in harsh environments, through-wall propagation and high-resolution ranging. However, during emergency responders’ missions, the availability of UWB signals is generally low (the nodes have to be deployed as the emergency responders enter a building) and can be affected by the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. In this paper, the performance of four typical distance-based positioning algorithms (Analytical, Least Squares, Taylor Series, and Extended Kalman Filter methods) with only three ranging measurements is assessed based on a COTS UWB transceiver. These algorithms are compared based on accuracy, precision and root mean square error (RMSE). The algorithms were evaluated under two environments with different propagation conditions (an atrium and a lab), for static and mobile devices, and under the human body’s influence. A NLOS identification and error mitigation algorithm was also used to improve the ranging measurements. The results show that the Extended Kalman Filter outperforms the other algorithms in almost every scenario, but it is affected by the low measurement rate of the UWB system. View Full-Text
Keywords: algorithms comparison; emergency responders; indoor positioning system (IPS); NLOS identification and mitigation; positioning algorithms; unstructured environments; UWB algorithms comparison; emergency responders; indoor positioning system (IPS); NLOS identification and mitigation; positioning algorithms; unstructured environments; UWB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, A.G.; Fernandes, D.; Catarino, A.P.; Monteiro, J.L. Performance Analysis of ToA-Based Positioning Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Targets with Low Ranging Measurements. Sensors 2017, 17, 1915.

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