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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 717; doi:10.3390/s17040717

An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks

Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, Florence 50139, Italy
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Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017

Abstract

Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality) has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization; RSSI; WSN; WiFi; 802.11; 802.15.4; bluetooth; iBeacon; iLocate; phaseless; COTS; network; DoA; fingerprinting; tracking indoor localization; RSSI; WSN; WiFi; 802.11; 802.15.4; bluetooth; iBeacon; iLocate; phaseless; COTS; network; DoA; fingerprinting; tracking
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Passafiume, M.; Maddio, S.; Cidronali, A. An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 717.

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