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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112484

Model-Based Localization and Tracking Using Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacons

1
Department of Computer Engineering, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul 34342, Turkey
2
Department of Computer Engineering, Galatasaray University, Istanbul 34349, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract

We introduce a high precision localization and tracking method that makes use of cheap Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) beacons only. We track the position of a moving sensor by integrating highly unreliable and noisy BLE observations streaming from multiple locations. A novel aspect of our approach is the development of an observation model, specifically tailored for received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprints: a combination based on the optimal transport model of Wasserstein distance. The tracking results of the entire system are compared with alternative baseline estimation methods, such as nearest neighboring fingerprints and an artificial neural network. Our results show that highly accurate estimation from noisy Bluetooth data is practically feasible with an observation model based on Wasserstein distance interpolation combined with the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method for tracking. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bluetooth low-energy localization; hidden Markov model; BLE tracking; observation probability estimation; Wasserstein distance; Wasserstein interpolation; affine Wasserstein combination; sequential Monte Carlo Bluetooth low-energy localization; hidden Markov model; BLE tracking; observation probability estimation; Wasserstein distance; Wasserstein interpolation; affine Wasserstein combination; sequential Monte Carlo
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Daniş, F.S.; Cemgil, A.T. Model-Based Localization and Tracking Using Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacons. Sensors 2017, 17, 2484.

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