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Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10586-10613; doi:10.3390/molecules170910586
Review

Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

1,2,3,* , 2,3
,
2,3
 and
2,3
1 Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237, Japan 2 Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan 3 Faculty of Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Abstract

The G-quadruplex, a four-stranded DNA structure with stacked guanine tetrads (G-quartets), has recently been attracting attention because of its critical roles in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the G-quadruplex functions as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplex can show peroxidase-like activity with an anionic porphyrin, iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (hemin). Importantly, hemin binds to G-quadruplexes with high selectivity over single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is attributable to an electrostatic repulsion of phosphate groups in ssDNA and dsDNA. The G-quadruplex and hemin-G-quadruplex complex allow development of sensing techniques to detect DNA, metal ions and proteins. In addition to hemin, anionic phthalocyanines also bind to the G-quadruplex formed by human telomere DNA, specifically over ssDNA and dsDNA. Since the binding of anionic phthalocyanines to the G-quadruplex causes an inhibition of telomerase activity, which plays a role in the immortal growth of cancer cells, anionic phthalocyanines are promising as novel anticancer drug candidates. This review focuses on the specific binding of hemin and anionic phthalocyanines to G-quadruplexes and the applications in vitro and in vivo of this binding property.
Keywords: anionic phthalocyanine; DNAzyme; G-quadruplex; hemin; peroxidase; telomerase anionic phthalocyanine; DNAzyme; G-quadruplex; hemin; peroxidase; telomerase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Yaku, H.; Murashima, T.; Miyoshi, D.; Sugimoto, N. Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 10586-10613.

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