Next Article in Journal
Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong
Next Article in Special Issue
Novel Lipophilic Lanthanide Bis-Phthalocyanines Functionalized by Pentadecylphenoxy Groups: Synthesis, Characterization and UV-Photostability
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Velvet Antler with Blood on Bone in Ovariectomized Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10586-10613; doi:10.3390/molecules170910586

Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

1,2,3,* , 2,3
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanine)
Download PDF [871 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


The G-quadruplex, a four-stranded DNA structure with stacked guanine tetrads (G-quartets), has recently been attracting attention because of its critical roles in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the G-quadruplex functions as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplex can show peroxidase-like activity with an anionic porphyrin, iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (hemin). Importantly, hemin binds to G-quadruplexes with high selectivity over single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is attributable to an electrostatic repulsion of phosphate groups in ssDNA and dsDNA. The G-quadruplex and hemin-G-quadruplex complex allow development of sensing techniques to detect DNA, metal ions and proteins. In addition to hemin, anionic phthalocyanines also bind to the G-quadruplex formed by human telomere DNA, specifically over ssDNA and dsDNA. Since the binding of anionic phthalocyanines to the G-quadruplex causes an inhibition of telomerase activity, which plays a role in the immortal growth of cancer cells, anionic phthalocyanines are promising as novel anticancer drug candidates. This review focuses on the specific binding of hemin and anionic phthalocyanines to G-quadruplexes and the applications in vitro and in vivo of this binding property.
Keywords: anionic phthalocyanine; DNAzyme; G-quadruplex; hemin; peroxidase; telomerase anionic phthalocyanine; DNAzyme; G-quadruplex; hemin; peroxidase; telomerase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Yaku, H.; Murashima, T.; Miyoshi, D.; Sugimoto, N. Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 10586-10613.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert