Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10586-10613; doi:10.3390/molecules170910586
Review

Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

1 Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237, Japan 2 Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan 3 Faculty of Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2012; in revised form: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanine)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [871 KB, uploaded 5 September 2012 12:32 CEST]
Abstract: The G-quadruplex, a four-stranded DNA structure with stacked guanine tetrads (G-quartets), has recently been attracting attention because of its critical roles in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the G-quadruplex functions as ligands for metal ions and aptamers for various molecules. Interestingly, the G-quadruplex can show peroxidase-like activity with an anionic porphyrin, iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (hemin). Importantly, hemin binds to G-quadruplexes with high selectivity over single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is attributable to an electrostatic repulsion of phosphate groups in ssDNA and dsDNA. The G-quadruplex and hemin-G-quadruplex complex allow development of sensing techniques to detect DNA, metal ions and proteins. In addition to hemin, anionic phthalocyanines also bind to the G-quadruplex formed by human telomere DNA, specifically over ssDNA and dsDNA. Since the binding of anionic phthalocyanines to the G-quadruplex causes an inhibition of telomerase activity, which plays a role in the immortal growth of cancer cells, anionic phthalocyanines are promising as novel anticancer drug candidates. This review focuses on the specific binding of hemin and anionic phthalocyanines to G-quadruplexes and the applications in vitro and in vivo of this binding property.
Keywords: anionic phthalocyanine; DNAzyme; G-quadruplex; hemin; peroxidase; telomerase

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yaku, H.; Murashima, T.; Miyoshi, D.; Sugimoto, N. Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 10586-10613.

AMA Style

Yaku H, Murashima T, Miyoshi D, Sugimoto N. Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications. Molecules. 2012; 17(9):10586-10613.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki. 2012. "Specific Binding of Anionic Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine to the G-Quadruplex with a Variety of in Vitro and in Vivo Applications." Molecules 17, no. 9: 10586-10613.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert