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Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins and Macrocyclic Receptors: Recent Developments in Their Synthesis and Applications
Chemistry Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2012; in revised form: 8 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Abstract: Metalloporphyrins which form the core of many bioenzymes and natural light harvesting or electron transport systems, exhibit a variety of selective functional properties depending on the state and surroundings with which they exist in biological systems. The specificity and ease with which they function in each of their bio-functions appear to be largely governed by the nature and disposition of the protein globule around the porphyrin reaction center. Synthetic porphyrin frameworks confined within or around a pre-organized molecular entity like the protein network in natural systems have attracted considerable attraction, especially in the field of biomimetic reactions. At the same time a large number of macrocyclic oligomers such as calixarenes, resorcinarenes, spherands, cyclodextrins and crown ethers have been investigated in detail as efficient molecular receptors. These molecular receptors are synthetic host molecules with enclosed interiors, which are designed three dimensionally to ensure strong and precise molecular encapsulation/recognition. Due to their complex structures, enclosed guest molecules reside in an environment isolated from the outside and as a consequence, physical properties and chemical reactions specific to that environment in these guest species can be identified. The facile incorporation of such molecular receptors into the highly photoactive and catalytically efficient porphyrin framework allows for convenient design of useful molecular systems with unique structural and functional properties. Such systems have provided over the years attractive model systems for the study of various biological and chemical processes, and the design of new materials and molecular devices. This review focuses on the recent developments in the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies associated with cyclodextrins, calixarenes and resorcinarenes and their potential applications in the fields of molecular encapsulation/recognition, and chemical catalysis.
Keywords: porphyrin; cyclodextrin; calixarene; resorcinarene; molecular recognition; host-guest systems
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Vinodh, M.; Alipour, F.H.; Mohamod, A.A.; Al-Azemi, T.F. Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins and Macrocyclic Receptors: Recent Developments in Their Synthesis and Applications. Molecules 2012, 17, 11763-11799.
Vinodh M, Alipour FH, Mohamod AA, Al-Azemi TF. Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins and Macrocyclic Receptors: Recent Developments in Their Synthesis and Applications. Molecules. 2012; 17(10):11763-11799.
Vinodh, Mickey; Alipour, Fatemeh H.; Mohamod, Abdirahman A.; Al-Azemi, Talal F. 2012. "Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins and Macrocyclic Receptors: Recent Developments in Their Synthesis and Applications." Molecules 17, no. 10: 11763-11799.