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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19463-19488; doi:10.3390/molecules201019463

Comparative Study of the Optical and Textural Properties of Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles Trapped Within ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Translucent Xerogels

Department of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340, Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Mele
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrapyrroles, Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines)
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Abstract

The entrapping of physicochemical active molecules inside mesoporous networks is an appealing field of research due to the myriad of potential applications in optics, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and medicine. One of the most important reasons for this success is the possibility of optimizing the properties that a free active species displays in solution but now trapped inside a solid substrate. Additionally it is possible to modulate the textural characteristics of substrates, such as pore size, specific surface area, polarity and chemical affinity of the surface, toward the physical or chemical adhesion of a variety of adsorbates. In the present document, two kinds of non-silicon metal alkoxides, Zr and Ti, are employed to prepare xerogels containing entrapped tetrapyrrolic species that could be inserted beforehand in analogue silica systems. The main goal is to develop efficient methods for trapping or binding tetrapyrrole macrocycles inside TiO2 and ZrO2 xerogels, while comparing the properties of these systems against those of the SiO2 analogues. Once the optimal synthesis conditions for obtaining translucent monolithic xerogels of ZrO2 and TiO2 networks were determined, it was confirmed that these substrates allowed the entrapment, in monomeric form, of macrocycles that commonly appear as aggregates within the SiO2 network. From these experiments, it could be determined that the average pore diameters, specific surface areas, and water sorption capacities depicted by each one of these substrates, are a consequence of their own nature combined with the particular structure of the entrapped tetrapyrrole macrocycle. Furthermore, the establishment of covalent bonds between the intruding species and the pore walls leads to the obtainment of very similar pore sizes in the three different metal oxide (Ti, Zr, and Si) substrates as a consequence of the templating effect of the encapsulated species. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrapyrrolic macrocycles; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; sol-gel; ZrO2; TiO2; SiO2; hybrid materials tetrapyrrolic macrocycles; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; sol-gel; ZrO2; TiO2; SiO2; hybrid materials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Salas-Bañales, E.; Quiroz-Segoviano, R.I.Y.; Díaz-Alejo, L.A.; Rojas-González, F.; Estrella-González, A.; Campero, A.; García-Sánchez, M.A. Comparative Study of the Optical and Textural Properties of Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles Trapped Within ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Translucent Xerogels. Molecules 2015, 20, 19463-19488.

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