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Special Issue "Micro/Nano Fabrication"

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A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cheng Luo

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 W First St., Arlington, TX 76019, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1-817-272-5010
Interests: MEMS; NEMS; microfluidics; surface wetting; bone implants; energy harvesting; solid mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lithography originally means the transfer of an image to a surface. Current photolithographic approaches, such as ultra-violet, electron-beam, X-ray and ion-beam, employ light exposure to pattern surfaces. Meanwhile, existing non-photolithographic methods use atomic force microscopes (dip-pen), soft (soft lithography) or hard molds (nanoimprint lithography), for example, to transfer patterns. In addition, non-lithographic approaches (like vapor-solid and vapor-liquid-solid), which do not involve the use of pre-existing images, may also be applied to generate tiny structures, such as nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes. Furthermore, the combination of various methods may create 3-D or hybrid micro/nano structures. This special issue seeks reviews, regular research papers and short communications on: (i) new approaches to fabricate micro/nano structures, and (ii) innovative use of existing techniques to generate new micro/nano structures.

Prof. Dr. Cheng Luo
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • micro/nano structures
  • fabrication techniques and methods

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle A Rapid and Low-Cost Nonlithographic Method to Fabricate Biomedical Microdevices for Blood Flow Analysis
Micromachines 2015, 6(1), 121-135; doi:10.3390/mi6010121
Received: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role
[...] Read more.
Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role in recent developments of lab-on-chip devices for blood sampling and analysis. The most popular and traditional method to fabricate these types of devices is the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography technique, which requires molds, usually produced by photolithography. Although the research results are extremely encouraging, the high costs and time involved in the production of molds by photolithography is currently slowing down the development cycle of these types of devices. Here we present a simple, rapid, and low-cost nonlithographic technique to create microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to perform cell free layer (CFL) measurements and the formation of microbubbles in continuous blood flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle Sub-Micrometer Size Structure Fabrication Using a Conductive Polymer
Micromachines 2015, 6(1), 96-109; doi:10.3390/mi6010096
Received: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
PDF Full-text (2747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stereolithography that uses a femtosecond laser was employed as a method for multiphoton-sensitized polymerization. We studied the stereolithography method, which produces duplicate solid shapes corresponding to the trajectory of the laser focus point and can be used to build a three-dimensional (3D) structure
[...] Read more.
Stereolithography that uses a femtosecond laser was employed as a method for multiphoton-sensitized polymerization. We studied the stereolithography method, which produces duplicate solid shapes corresponding to the trajectory of the laser focus point and can be used to build a three-dimensional (3D) structure using a conductive polymer. To achieve this, we first considered a suitable polymerization condition for line stereolithography. However, this introduced a problem of irregular polymerization. To overcome this, we constructed a support in the polymerized part using a protein material. This method can stabilize polymerization, but it is not suited for building 3D shapes. Therefore, we considered whether heat accumulation causes the irregular polymerization; consequently, the reduction method of the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser was used to reduce the heating process. This method enabled stabilization and building of a 3D shape using photo-polymerization of a conductive polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessCommunication Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate
Micromachines 2015, 6(1), 32-41; doi:10.3390/mi6010032
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher
[...] Read more.
In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO3)2, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Miscible Organic Solvents Soak Bonding Method Use in a PMMA Multilayer Microfluidic Device
Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 1416-1428; doi:10.3390/mi5041416
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed a novel bonding technology to fabricate a microfluidic device based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The method, which used chloroform and ethanol as miscible bonding solvent, can complete complex structures rapid assembly (10 min) at 40°C. A bonding strength
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we proposed a novel bonding technology to fabricate a microfluidic device based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The method, which used chloroform and ethanol as miscible bonding solvent, can complete complex structures rapid assembly (10 min) at 40°C. A bonding strength of 267.5 N/cm2 can be achieved, while the micro channel deformation was less than 7.26%. Then we utilized this method to produce a three layers micro mixer, which included a T-shaped inlet channel and six H-shaped mixing units. Numerical simulation indicated that, the well mixing length of the mixer was only about 6 mm when Re = 10. Finally, fluorescence microscopy was used to verify mixer performance. The method provided the potential for mass production of multilayer rigid polymer microfluidic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle Growth of Ultra-Long ZnO Microtubes Using a Modified Vapor-Solid Setup
Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 1069-1081; doi:10.3390/mi5041069
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we have modified the experimental setup for a vapor-solid (VS) process to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) microtubes (MTs) with lengths up to 3 mm during a 90-min growth period. The critical idea behind this modification is to control the distribution
[...] Read more.
In this work, we have modified the experimental setup for a vapor-solid (VS) process to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) microtubes (MTs) with lengths up to 3 mm during a 90-min growth period. The critical idea behind this modification is to control the distribution of Zn vapor along the Si substrates. The morphology evolution of ZnO structures with the increasing reaction time was particularly explored. We found that, within the 90-min growth period, four different types of ZnO microstructures appeared in this synthesis process: microrods (MRs), short MTs, two-tier structures, and long MTs. Growth mechanisms were proposed to interpret the formation of these structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Testing of an Osmotic Pressure Sensor for Glucose Sensing Application
Micromachines 2014, 5(3), 722-737; doi:10.3390/mi5030722
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a chemical reaction-free sensor, based on the osmosis principle, fabricated to measure the change in glucose concentration levels. The sensor consists of a square cavity filled with a known concentration of glucose solution and sealed with a semi-permeable membrane. The
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a chemical reaction-free sensor, based on the osmosis principle, fabricated to measure the change in glucose concentration levels. The sensor consists of a square cavity filled with a known concentration of glucose solution and sealed with a semi-permeable membrane. The volume inside the cavity changes in proportion to the glucose concentration outside the device and introduces the displacement in the silicon (Si) membrane on the top. The main considerations targeted for this sensor are better response time, chemical-free nature, improved lifetime and absence of any mechanical excitations. Moreover, as the size of a system plays a major role, efforts have been taken to reduce the dimension of the presented system. The designed glucose sensor is fabricated by employing a bulk micromachining technology on a SOI (silicon on insulator) substrate. This will allow batch fabrication, as well as the integration of the electronic circuit on the same substrate. The output voltage obtained is varied from Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle Microfabrication of a Novel Ceramic Pressure Sensor with High Sensitivity Based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) Technology
Micromachines 2014, 5(2), 396-407; doi:10.3390/mi5020396
Received: 5 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the collapse of the cavity and to improve the performance of the sensor. Unlike the traditional LTCC sensor, the sensitive membrane of the proposed sensor is very flat, and the deformation of the sensitivity membrane is smaller. The proposed sensor also demonstrates a greater responsivity, which reaches as high as 13 kHz/kPa in range of 0–100 kPa. During experiments, the newly fabricated sensor, which is only about 6.5 cm2, demonstrated very good performance: the repeatability error, hysteresis error, and nonlinearity of the sensor are about 4.25%, 2.13%, and 1.77%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle An Experimental Investigation of Micro Pulsating Heat Pipes
Micromachines 2014, 5(2), 385-395; doi:10.3390/mi5020385
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two Si-based micro pulsating heat pipes (µPHPs) charged using HFE-7100 were either horizontally or vertically oriented and were tested using several heating powers. The width of each channel was 0.8 mm in one µPHP containing uniform channels, and the channel width was 1.0
[...] Read more.
Two Si-based micro pulsating heat pipes (µPHPs) charged using HFE-7100 were either horizontally or vertically oriented and were tested using several heating powers. The width of each channel was 0.8 mm in one µPHP containing uniform channels, and the channel width was 1.0 mm or 0.6 mm in the other µPHP, which did not contain uniform channels. The depth of each channel was 0.25 mm. The overall size of each µPHP was 60 × 10 × 1.25 mm. Visual observation and temperature measurement of the µPHPs under various conditions were performed and the results were analyzed. The results indicated that when the µPHPs were operated horizontally at a heating power ranging from 1 to 7 W, the pulsating two-phase flow in the channels of the µPHPs could not begin, except when the µPHP containing nonuniform channels was tested at a heating power of 7 W. With a heating power less than 5 W, the frequency of the sine-like oscillating displacement of the vapor slug increased and the displacement of the vapor slug reduced in either vertically oriented μPHP, as the heating power increased With a heating power higher than 5 W, periodic “start-stop” behaviors were observed in the vertical μPHP containing nonuniform channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
Open AccessArticle One-Step Combined-Nanolithography-and-Photolithography for a 2D Photonic Crystal TM Polarizer
Micromachines 2014, 5(2), 228-238; doi:10.3390/mi5020228
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
PDF Full-text (3105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photonic crystals have been widely investigated since they have great potential to manipulate the flow of light in an ultra-compact-scale and enable numerous innovative applications. 2D slab photonic crystals for the telecommunication C band at around 1550 nm have multi-scale structures that are
[...] Read more.
Photonic crystals have been widely investigated since they have great potential to manipulate the flow of light in an ultra-compact-scale and enable numerous innovative applications. 2D slab photonic crystals for the telecommunication C band at around 1550 nm have multi-scale structures that are typically micron-scale waveguides and deep sub-micron-scale air hole arrays. Several steps of nanolithography and photolithography are usually used for the fabrication of multi-scale photonic crystals. In this work, we report a one-step lithography process to pattern both micron and deep sub-micron features simultaneously for the 2D slab photonic crystal using combined-nanoimprint-and-photolithography. As a demonstrator, a 2D silicon photonic crystal transverse magnetic (TM) polarizer was fabricated, and the operation was successfully demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Fabrication of Micro/Nano Structures on Metals by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining
Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 1219-1253; doi:10.3390/mi5041219
Received: 22 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (5211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Femtosecond laser micromachining has emerged in recent years as a new technique for micro/nano structure fabrication because of its applicability to virtually all kinds of materials in an easy one-step process that is scalable. In the past, much research on femtosecond laser micromachining
[...] Read more.
Femtosecond laser micromachining has emerged in recent years as a new technique for micro/nano structure fabrication because of its applicability to virtually all kinds of materials in an easy one-step process that is scalable. In the past, much research on femtosecond laser micromachining was carried out to understand the complex ablation mechanism, whereas recent works are mostly concerned with the fabrication of surface structures because of their numerous possible applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge on the fabrication of these structures on metals with direct femtosecond laser micromachining is reviewed in this article. The effect of various parameters, such as fluence, number of pulses, laser beam polarization, wavelength, incident angle, scan velocity, number of scans, and environment, on the formation of different structures is discussed in detail wherever possible. Furthermore, a guideline for surface structures optimization is provided. The authors’ experimental work on laser-inscribed regular pattern fabrication is presented to give a complete picture of micromachining processes. Finally, possible applications of laser-machined surface structures in different fields are briefly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fabrication)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

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