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Special Issue "Biodegradability of Materials"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2009)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vladimir P. Torchilin

University Distinguished Professor, Director, Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, Northeastern University, 140 The Fenway, room 214, 360 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +617 373 7509
Interests: drug carriers; drug delivery sytems; drug targeting; liposomes; micelles; experimental cancer immunology; imaging agents
Editorial Advisor
Dr. Naozumi Teramoto

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +81 47 478 0406
Interests: biomaterial; bio-based polymer; bioplastics; biodegradable polymer; biopolymer; composite material comprising a polymer matrix

Special Issue Information

To protect environment, the biodegradable materials have great advantages. However, for material stability biodegradation sometimes is a problem, for example the biomedical materials.

Keywords

  • biodegradable polymers
  • organics
  • materials

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Preparation and Enzymatic Degradation of Porous Crosslinked Polylactides of Biomass Origin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9793-9808; doi:10.3390/ijms15069793
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand the enzymatic degradation behavior of crosslinked polylactide (PLA), the preparation and enzymatic degradation of both thermoplastic (linear) and crosslinked PLAs that have pore structures with different dimensions were carried out. The porous structures of the linear PLA samples were of micro
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To understand the enzymatic degradation behavior of crosslinked polylactide (PLA), the preparation and enzymatic degradation of both thermoplastic (linear) and crosslinked PLAs that have pore structures with different dimensions were carried out. The porous structures of the linear PLA samples were of micro and nanoporous nature, and prepared by batch foaming with supercritical CO2 and compared with the porous structures of crosslinked PLA (Lait-X) created by the salt leaching method. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the porous structures were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. The morphological analysis of porous Lait-X showed a rapid loss of physical features within 120 h of exposure to proteinase-K enzymatic degradation at 37 °C. Due to the higher affinity for water, enhanced enzymatic activity as compared to the linear PLA porous structures in the micro and nanoporous range was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 9134-9148; doi:10.3390/ijms15059134
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation
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Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 μg (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 μg (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate) Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4267-4283; doi:10.3390/ijms10104267
Received: 15 August 2009 / Revised: 10 September 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting
[...] Read more.
The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the 14C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Anaerobic Biodegradation Tests of Poly(lactic acid) under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions Using a New Evaluation System for Methane Fermentation in Anaerobic Sludge
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 3824-3835; doi:10.3390/ijms10093824
Received: 31 July 2009 / Revised: 27 August 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 2 September 2009
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic temperature (35 °C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 °C) and 2.24% (at 35 °C)] using a newly
[...] Read more.
Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) powder were done at the thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic temperature (35 °C) under aquatic conditions [total solid concentrations of the used sludge were 2.07% (at 55 °C) and 2.24% (at 35 °C)] using a newly developed evaluation system. With this system, the evolved biogas is collected in a gas sampling bag at atmospheric pressure. This method is more convenient than using a pressure transducer or inverted graduated cylinder submerged in water. PLA was degraded about 60% in 30 days, about 80% in 40 days and about 90% in 60 days at 55 °C. On the other hand, the PLA degradation started in 55 days at 35 °C and degradation rate was much slower than at 55 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of a Biodegradable Mulch Sheet Produced from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Ecoflex®/Modified Starch in Mandarin Orange Groves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3599-3615; doi:10.3390/ijms10083599
Received: 31 July 2009 / Revised: 12 August 2009 / Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 17 August 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a mulch sheet made by inflation molding of PLA, Ecoflex® and modified starch, which all have different biodegradabilities. A field test of use as an agricultural mulch sheet for mandarin oranges was carried out over two years. The mechanical properties
[...] Read more.
We have developed a mulch sheet made by inflation molding of PLA, Ecoflex® and modified starch, which all have different biodegradabilities. A field test of use as an agricultural mulch sheet for mandarin oranges was carried out over two years. The mechanical properties of the mulch sheet were weakened with time during the field test, but the quality of the mandarin oranges increased, a result of the controlled degradation of the sheet. The most degradable modified starch degraded first, allowing control of the moisture on the soil. Accelerator mass spectroscopy was used for evaluation of the biomass carbon ratio. The biomass carbon ratio decreased by degradation of the biobased materials, PLA and modified starch in the mulch sheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Glycosylation of Fluorophenols by Plant Cell Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 1942-1949; doi:10.3390/ijms10051942
Received: 10 February 2009 / Revised: 10 April 2009 / Accepted: 24 April 2009 / Published: 27 April 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluoroaromatic compounds are used as agrochemicals and released into environment as pollutants. Glycosylation of 2-, 3-, and 4-fluorophenols using plant cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum was investigated to elucidate their potential to metabolize these compounds. Cultured N. tabacum cells converted 2-fluorophenol into its
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Fluoroaromatic compounds are used as agrochemicals and released into environment as pollutants. Glycosylation of 2-, 3-, and 4-fluorophenols using plant cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum was investigated to elucidate their potential to metabolize these compounds. Cultured N. tabacum cells converted 2-fluorophenol into its β-glucoside (60%) and β-gentiobioside (10%). 4-Fluorophenol was also glycosylated to its β-glucoside (32%) and β-gentiobioside (6%) by N. tabacum cells. On the other hand, N. tabacum glycosylated 3-fluorophenol to β-glucoside (17%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Synthetic Bioelastomers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4223-4256; doi:10.3390/ijms10104223
Received: 4 August 2009 / Revised: 30 August 2009 / Accepted: 8 September 2009 / Published: 29 September 2009
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews the degradability of chemically synthesized bioelastomers, mainly designed for soft tissue repair. These bioelastomers involve biodegradable polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, linear and crosslinked poly(ether/ester)s, poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymers, poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) and their copolymers, poly(polyol sebacate)s, poly(diol-citrates) and poly(ester amide)s. The in vitro and in
[...] Read more.
This article reviews the degradability of chemically synthesized bioelastomers, mainly designed for soft tissue repair. These bioelastomers involve biodegradable polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, linear and crosslinked poly(ether/ester)s, poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymers, poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) and their copolymers, poly(polyol sebacate)s, poly(diol-citrates) and poly(ester amide)s. The in vitro and in vivo degradation mechanisms and impact factors influencing degradation behaviors are discussed. In addition, the molecular designs, synthesis methods, structure properties, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and potential applications of these bioelastomers were also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
Open AccessReview Biodegradability of Plastics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 3722-3742; doi:10.3390/ijms10093722
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 21 August 2009 / Accepted: 25 August 2009 / Published: 26 August 2009
Cited by 175 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be
[...] Read more.
Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
Open AccessReview Biodegradability Evaluation of Polymers by ISO 14855-2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3635-3654; doi:10.3390/ijms10083635
Received: 4 August 2009 / Revised: 13 August 2009 / Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 18 August 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodegradabilities of polymers and their composites in a controlled compost were described. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were employed as biodegradable polymers. Biodegradabilities of PCL and PLA samples in a controlled compost were measured using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) according
[...] Read more.
Biodegradabilities of polymers and their composites in a controlled compost were described. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were employed as biodegradable polymers. Biodegradabilities of PCL and PLA samples in a controlled compost were measured using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) according to ISO 14855-2. Sample preparation method for biodegradation test according to ISO/DIS 10210 was also described. Effects of sizes and shapes of samples on biodegradability were studied. Reproducibility of biodegradation test of ISO 14855-2 by MODA was confirmed. Validity of sample preparation method for polymer pellets, polymer film, and polymer products of ISO/DIS 10210 for ISO 14855-2 was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Open AccessReview Biodegradation of Silk Biomaterials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1514-1524; doi:10.3390/ijms10041514
Received: 16 January 2009 / Revised: 5 March 2009 / Accepted: 9 March 2009 / Published: 31 March 2009
Cited by 158 | PDF Full-text (110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation, non-toxicity, adsorption properties, etc. As a kind of ideal biomaterial, silk fibroin has been widely used since it was first utilized for sutures a long time ago. The
[...] Read more.
Silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation, non-toxicity, adsorption properties, etc. As a kind of ideal biomaterial, silk fibroin has been widely used since it was first utilized for sutures a long time ago. The degradation behavior of silk biomaterials is obviously important for medical applications. This article will focus on silk-based biomaterials and review the degradation behaviors of silk materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
Open AccessReview Biodegradable Polydepsipeptides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(2), 589-615; doi:10.3390/ijms10020589
Received: 5 January 2009 / Revised: 10 February 2009 / Accepted: 13 February 2009 / Published: 13 February 2009
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, biodegradation and usage of bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides. The ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives using organic Sn and enzyme lipase is discussed. The dependence of the macroscopic properties of the block copolymers on their structure is
[...] Read more.
This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, biodegradation and usage of bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides. The ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives using organic Sn and enzyme lipase is discussed. The dependence of the macroscopic properties of the block copolymers on their structure is also presented. Bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides could be used as biomaterials in drug controlled release, tissue engineering scaffolding and shape-memory materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)

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