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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4267-4283; doi:10.3390/ijms10104267

Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate) Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan
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Received: 15 August 2009 / Revised: 10 September 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials)
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Abstract

The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the 14C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO2.
Keywords: biodegradation; poly(butylenes succinate); ISO 14855-2; accelerator mass spectrometry; radiocarbon biodegradation; poly(butylenes succinate); ISO 14855-2; accelerator mass spectrometry; radiocarbon
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Kunioka, M.; Ninomiya, F.; Funabashi, M. Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate) Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4267-4283.

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