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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11438-11449; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111438

Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters

1
Physiology Research Group, Graduate Program on Biochemistry, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), P.O. Box 118, 97500-970, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Química de Proteínas (LAQUIP), Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6109, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3
Neurobiology and Toxinology Group (LANETOX), Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil
This paper is an extended version of our poster present at the 1st Latin American Congress of Clinical and Laboratorial Toxicology (Toxi-Latin 2014), Porto, Alegre, RS, Brazil, 27–30 April 2014.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
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Abstract

Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; toxicity; inflammation; oxidative parameters; brain; plasma snake venom; toxicity; inflammation; oxidative parameters; brain; plasma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonçalves, R.; Vargas, L.S.; Lara, M.V.S.; Güllich, A.; Mandredini, V.; Ponce-Soto, L.; Marangoni, S.; Belo, C.A.D.; Mello-Carpes, P.B. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11438-11449.

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