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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9024-9037; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909024

Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

1
Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000, Brazil
2
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil
3
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS 95070-560, Brazil
4
Post-graduate Program of Pharmacy Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000, Brazil
5
Toxicology Institute, Pharmacy Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90619-900, Brazil
6
Institute of Cardiology, University Cardiology Foundation, Porto Alegre, RS 90620-000, Brazil
7
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-070, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 1 September 2014
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Abstract

Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1-hydroxypyrene; lipid peroxidation; inflammation; biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene; lipid peroxidation; inflammation; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Freitas, F.; Brucker, N.; Durgante, J.; Bubols, G.; Bulcão, R.; Moro, A.; Charão, M.; Baierle, M.; Nascimento, S.; Gauer, B.; Sauer, E.; Zimmer, M.; Thiesen, F.; Castro, I.; Saldiva, P.; Garcia, S.C. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 9024-9037.

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