Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine
AbstractRecent research suggests that crack cocaine use alters systemic biochemical markers, like oxidative damage and inflammation markers, but very few studies have assessed the potential effects of crack cocaine at the cellular level. We assessed genome instability by means of the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique in crack cocaine users at the time of admission to a rehabilitation clinic and at two times after the beginning of withdrawal. Thirty one active users of crack cocaine and forty control subjects were evaluated. Comparison between controls and crack cocaine users at the first analysis showed significant differences in the rates of DNA damage (p = 0.037). The frequency of micronuclei (MN) (p < 0.001) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) (p < 0.001) was increased, but not the frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) (p = 0.089). DNA damage decreased only after the end of treatment (p < 0.001). Micronuclei frequency did not decrease after treatment, and nuclear buds increased substantially. The results of this study reveal the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of crack cocaine use in human lymphocytes and pave the way for further research on cellular responses and the possible consequences of DNA damage, such as induction of irreversible neurological disease and cancer. View Full-Text
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Freitas, T.A.B.; Palazzo, R.P.; de Andrade, F.M.; Reichert, C.L.; Pechansky, F.; Kessler, F.; de Farias, C.B.; de Andrade, G.G.; Leistner-Segal, S.; Maluf, S.W. Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10003-10015.
Freitas TAB, Palazzo RP, de Andrade FM, Reichert CL, Pechansky F, Kessler F, de Farias CB, de Andrade GG, Leistner-Segal S, Maluf SW. Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(10):10003-10015.Chicago/Turabian Style
Freitas, Thiago A.B.; Palazzo, Roberta P.; de Andrade, Fabiana M.; Reichert, César L.; Pechansky, Flávio; Kessler, Félix; de Farias, Caroline B.; de Andrade, Gisele G.; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Maluf, Sharbel W. 2014. "Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 10: 10003-10015.