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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12927-12937; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212927

Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil)

1
Departamento de Química e Biologia, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, São Luís—MA, 65055-000, Brazil
2
University City Paulo VI, s/no, Cidade Operária, São Luís—MA, 65055-000, Brazil
3
Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, 86057-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI) average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site. View Full-Text
Keywords: Centropomus undecimalis; Sardinella sp.; lagoon environment; histological biomarkers Centropomus undecimalis; Sardinella sp.; lagoon environment; histological biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos, D.M.S.; Melo, M.R.S.; Mendes, D.C.S.; Rocha, I.K.B.S.; Silva, J.P.L.; Cantanhêde, S.M.; Meletti, P.C. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12927-12937.

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