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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 8825-8838; doi:10.3390/ijerph110908825

A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient

Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Sarmento Leite Street, 245, Room 9. Porto Alegre 90050-170, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
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Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
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Abstract

Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronucleus; air pollution; biomonitoring; bioindicator; passive sampling; genotoxicity; ozone; nitrogen dioxide micronucleus; air pollution; biomonitoring; bioindicator; passive sampling; genotoxicity; ozone; nitrogen dioxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fleck, A.S.; Vieira, M.; Amantéa, S.L.; Rhoden, C.R. A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8825-8838.

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