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Water, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2012), Pages 759-1038

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Issues and Challenges in Flood Risk Management—Editorial for the Special Issue on Flood Risk Management
Water 2012, 4(4), 785-792; doi:10.3390/w4040785
Received: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 October 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections
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Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections between infrastructures, economic systems and the role of human factors in assessing and managing the risk. The challenge for flood management in the future is to develop robust and resilient solutions that perform well in uncertain future conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Management)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan
Water 2012, 4(4), 759-769; doi:10.3390/w4040759
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From the viewpoint of combating global warming in Japan, measures to reduce emissions from the activities involved in daily life have been accelerated in concurrence with the efforts made in the industrial sector to save energy. As one such measure, the reduction of
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From the viewpoint of combating global warming in Japan, measures to reduce emissions from the activities involved in daily life have been accelerated in concurrence with the efforts made in the industrial sector to save energy. As one such measure, the reduction of energy consumption in waterworks and sewer systems by reducing the volume of water used in the housing sector is gaining attention; measures for the conversion of water saving into CO2 reduction credit in the domestic credit system are also being examined. To address the credit development for CO2 reduction by water saving, it was necessary to determine the CO2 emission factor for water. Hence, we calculated the CO2 emission factor of water use in Japan and determined the value to be 0.376 kg CO2/m3 which applied the generating end electricity value. In addition, since electricity contributes to 90% of the energy consumption of the waterworks and sewer systems of Japan and since the emission factor for electricity changes with the power source composition ratio, the CO2 emission factor for water also needs to be updated to match the emission factor for electricity. We therefore developed a calculation equation for updating this emission factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Fungal Waste-Biomasses as Potential Low-Cost Biosorbents for Decolorization of Textile Wastewaters
Water 2012, 4(4), 770-784; doi:10.3390/w4040770
Received: 28 July 2012 / Revised: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biosorption potential of three fungal waste-biomasses (Acremonium strictum, Acremonium sp. and Penicillium sp.) from pharmaceutical companies was compared with that of a selected biomass (Cunninghamella elegans), already proven to be very effective in dye biosorption. Among the waste-biomasses,
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The biosorption potential of three fungal waste-biomasses (Acremonium strictum, Acremonium sp. and Penicillium sp.) from pharmaceutical companies was compared with that of a selected biomass (Cunninghamella elegans), already proven to be very effective in dye biosorption. Among the waste-biomasses, A. strictum was the most efficient (decolorization percentage up to 90% within 30 min) with regard to three simulated dye baths; nevertheless it was less active than C. elegans which was able to produce a quick and substantial decolorization of all the simulated dye baths (up to 97% within 30 min). The biomasses of A. strictum and C. elegans were then tested for the treatment of nine real exhausted dye baths. A. strictum was effective at acidic or neutral pH, whereas C. elegans confirmed its high efficiency and versatility towards exhausted dye baths characterised by different classes of dyes (acid, disperse, vat, reactive) and variation in pH and ionic strength. Finally, the effect of pH on the biosorption process was evaluated to provide a realistic estimation of the validity of the laboratory results in an industrial setting. The C. elegans biomass was highly effective from pH 3 to pH 11 (for amounts of adsorbed dye up to 1054 and 667 mg of dye g−1 biomass dry weight, respectively); thus, this biomass can be considered an excellent and exceptionally versatile biosorbent material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle The Recovery of Two Polluted Subarctic Lakes—Towards Nutrient Management or a Pristine State?
Water 2012, 4(4), 793-814; doi:10.3390/w4040793
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 20 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two small subarctic lakes were eutrophicated due to wastewater discharge from 1964. In 1975, a wastewater treatment plant was built and a recovery process started. This paper will: (1) compile the 1972–1974, 1978–1980 and 1985–1988 investigation data regarding phosphorous and microalgae for one
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Two small subarctic lakes were eutrophicated due to wastewater discharge from 1964. In 1975, a wastewater treatment plant was built and a recovery process started. This paper will: (1) compile the 1972–1974, 1978–1980 and 1985–1988 investigation data regarding phosphorous and microalgae for one of the lakes; (2) complement with unpublished data from 1985 and 2003; and (3) introduce a discussion regarding three alternatives for future development of the lakes in their last phase of recovery. In the latest investigation, 2003, the lakes were assessed as almost recovered. They had returned to an oligotrophic state, but not fully to a pre-sewage situation. In the upper lake, more heavily polluted, the total phosphorous levels had decreased from an average of 168 µg P/L in 1972–1974 to an average of 12 µg P/L in 2003. The phytoplankton biomass had decreased twentyfold during the same period, from 11.2 mg/L to 0.6 mg/L. The Secchi depth had increased from 1.3 m to 2.8 m. The low oxygen level in late winter was still not recovered, thereby profoundly affecting residential organisms in the lakes. The low winter oxygen is assumed to remain so for a long time due to phosphorus release from sediments in the lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Water Quality Status on a Stretch of River Lérez around a Small Hydroelectric Power Station
Water 2012, 4(4), 815-834; doi:10.3390/w4040815
Received: 16 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP) is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality
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The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP) is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality should be ensured. This work provides a characterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Lérez, northwest Spain, for four years after its construction. The ecological and chemical status of the water as well as the ecological quality of the riparian habitat, were used as measures of quality. Data were compared with the water quality requirements. The variations in the quality parameters were analyzed over time and over the river sections with respect to the SHP plant elements. Two years after construction, the temperature and dissolved oxygen values achieved conditions for salmonid water and close to the reference condition, while pH values were low. The Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP) index showed a positive trend from two years after the construction and stabilized at “unpolluted or not considerably altered water”. Quality parameters did not present significant differences between sampling points. The SHP plant construction momentarily altered the quality characteristics of the water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Issues Affecting Community Attitudes and Intended Behaviours in Stormwater Reuse: A Case Study of Salisbury, South Australia
Water 2012, 4(4), 835-847; doi:10.3390/w4040835
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stormwater has been recognised as one of the additional/alternative sources of water to augment freshwater supply and address the growing needs of humankind. South Australia has been a leader in the development of large-scale urban stormwater harvesting schemes in Australia for nearly 50
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Stormwater has been recognised as one of the additional/alternative sources of water to augment freshwater supply and address the growing needs of humankind. South Australia has been a leader in the development of large-scale urban stormwater harvesting schemes in Australia for nearly 50 years and the Salisbury Local Government Area (LGA), in particular, is at the forefront of urban stormwater management and recycling, not only in the state of South Australia, but worldwide. This is mainly due to its pioneering achievements in stormwater capture and treatment through the managed aquifer recharge (MAR) process. However, there are many challenges in implementing water reuse strategies and past studies have identified public health concerns and public acceptance as major challenges. In line with this, our team conducted an internet survey to gauge the attitude and intentions of Salisbury LGA residents to use stormwater treated through the MAR process for non-potable uses. We found that respondents’ emotions and perceptions of health risk, regarding the use of treated stormwater, were closely related to the proximity of the end use to human contact. In terms of quality indicators, colour, odour, and salt levels were all seen as being important. Quality preferences were also closely related to the proximity of the end use to human contact, and reflected the use of water for indoor/outdoor purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
Open AccessArticle Scenario Planning to Address Critical Uncertainties for Robust and Resilient Water–Wastewater Infrastructures under Conditions of Water Scarcity and Rapid Development
Water 2012, 4(4), 848-868; doi:10.3390/w4040848
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ensuring water availability for multiple needs represents a sustainable development challenge globally. Rigid planning for fixed water supply and reuse targets with estimated demand growth and static assumptions of water availability can prove inflexible in responding to changing conditions. Formal methods to adaptively
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Ensuring water availability for multiple needs represents a sustainable development challenge globally. Rigid planning for fixed water supply and reuse targets with estimated demand growth and static assumptions of water availability can prove inflexible in responding to changing conditions. Formal methods to adaptively respond to these challenges are needed, particularly in regions with limited natural resources and/or where multiple uncertain forces can influence water-resource availability and supply reliability. This paper assesses the application of Scenario Planning in one such region—Tucson, Arizona, USA—over the coming 40 years, and highlights broader lessons for addressing complex interrelationships of water management, infrastructure development, and population growth. Planners from multiple jurisdictions and researchers identified ten key forces and prioritized three with the greatest uncertainty and the greatest impact for water and development planning: (1) changing demands based on potential future density, layout, and per capita water use/reuse; (2) adequacy of current water supplies to meet future demands; and (3) evolving public perceptions of water reuse including potential options to supplement potable water supplies. Detailed scenario modeling using GIS and infrastructure cost optimization is under development and is now beginning to produce results, to be discussed in future publications. The process has clearly demonstrated the value of Scenario Planning as a tool for bringing stakeholders into agreement over highly complex and historically divisive problems, and for prioritizing amongst diverse uncertainties. The paper concludes by characterizing possible outcomes for this case and draws lessons for other water scarce regions experiencing rapid development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Simple Scheme for Modeling Irrigation Water Requirements at the Regional Scale Applied to an Alpine River Catchment
Water 2012, 4(4), 869-886; doi:10.3390/w4040869
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a simple approach for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of seasonal net irrigation water requirement (IWR) at the catchment scale, based on gridded land use, soil and daily weather data at 500 × 500 m resolution. In this approach,
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This paper presents a simple approach for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of seasonal net irrigation water requirement (IWR) at the catchment scale, based on gridded land use, soil and daily weather data at 500 × 500 m resolution. In this approach, IWR is expressed as a bounded, linear function of the atmospheric water budget, whereby the latter is defined as the difference between seasonal precipitation and reference evapotranspiration. To account for the effects of soil and crop properties on the soil water balance, the coefficients of the linear relation are expressed as a function of the soil water holding capacity and the so-called crop coefficient. The 12 parameters defining the relation were estimated with good coefficients of determination from a systematic analysis of simulations performed at daily time step with a FAO-type point-scale model for five climatically contrasted sites around the River Rhone and for combinations of six crop and ten soil types. The simple scheme was found to reproduce well results obtained with the daily model at six additional verification sites. We applied the simple scheme to the assessment of irrigation requirements in the whole Swiss Rhone catchment. The results suggest seasonal requirements of 32 × 106 m3 per year on average over 1981–2009, half of which at altitudes above 1500 m. They also disclose a positive trend in the intensity of extreme events over the study period, with an estimated total IWR of 55 × 106 m3 in 2009, and indicate a 45% increase in water demand of grasslands during the 2003 European heat wave in the driest area of the studied catchment. In view of its simplicity, the approach can be extended to other applications, including assessments of the impacts of climate and land-use change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany) According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement
Water 2012, 4(4), 887-904; doi:10.3390/w4040887
Received: 28 August 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Federal State of Saxony (Germany) transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams) for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD). Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos,
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The Federal State of Saxony (Germany) transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams) for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD). Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton) and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP) of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4%) streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams) and nutrient enrichment (62%) caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants) and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants) sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
Open AccessArticle Combining Ecosystem Service and Critical Load Concepts for Resource Management and Public Policy
Water 2012, 4(4), 905-913; doi:10.3390/w4040905
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES) and critical load (CL). The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and
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Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES) and critical load (CL). The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and CL principles for public land management and natural resource policy decision-making. One well known example that is appropriate for ES and CL evaluation is examined here: the acidification of soil and drainage water by atmospheric deposition of acidifying sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A conceptual framework illustrates how the ES and CL approaches can be combined in a way that enhances the strengths of each. This framework will aid in the process of translating ES and CL principles into land management and natural resource policy decision-making by documenting the impacts of pollution on environmental goods and services that benefit humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle A Mass Balance Model for Designing Green Roof Systems that Incorporate a Cistern for Re-Use
Water 2012, 4(4), 914-931; doi:10.3390/w4040914
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green roofs, which have been used for several decades in many parts of the world, offer a unique and sustainable approach to stormwater management. Within this paper, evidence is presented on water retention for an irrigated green roof system. The presented green roof
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Green roofs, which have been used for several decades in many parts of the world, offer a unique and sustainable approach to stormwater management. Within this paper, evidence is presented on water retention for an irrigated green roof system. The presented green roof design results in a water retention volume on site. A first principle mass balance computer model is introduced to assist with the design of these green roof systems which incorporate a cistern to capture and reuse runoff waters for irrigation of the green roof. The model is used to estimate yearly stormwater retention volume for different cistern storage volumes. Additionally, the Blaney and Criddle equation is evaluated for estimation of monthly evapotranspiration rates for irrigated systems and incorporated into the model. This is done so evapotranspiration rates can be calculated for regions where historical data does not exist, allowing the model to be used anywhere historical weather data are available. This model is developed and discussed within this paper as well as compared to experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Modification of Polyethersulfone Membranes
Water 2012, 4(4), 932-943; doi:10.3390/w4040932
Received: 1 October 2012 / Revised: 6 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzymatic modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes has been found not only feasible, but also an environmentally attractive way to vary surface properties systematically. In this paper, we summarize the effect of modification layers on protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on PES membranes and
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Enzymatic modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes has been found not only feasible, but also an environmentally attractive way to vary surface properties systematically. In this paper, we summarize the effect of modification layers on protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on PES membranes and surfaces. The enzyme laccase was used to covalently bind (poly)phenolic acids to the membrane, and compared to other membrane modification methods, this method is very mild and did not influence the mechanical strength negatively. Depending on the conditions used during modification, the modification layers were capable of influencing interactions with typical fouling species, such as protein, and to influence attachment of microorganisms. We also show that the modification method can be successfully applied to hollow fiber membranes; and depending on the pore size of the base membrane, proteins were partially rejected by the membrane. In conclusion, we have shown that enzymatic membrane modification is a versatile and economically attractive method that can be used to influence various interactions that normally lead to surface contamination, pore blocking, and considerable flux loss in membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
Open AccessArticle Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA
Water 2012, 4(4), 944-958; doi:10.3390/w4040944
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 10 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the
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Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1), while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2). V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1). Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Climate-Driven or Human-Induced: Indicating Severe Water Scarcity in the Moulouya River Basin (Morocco)
Water 2012, 4(4), 959-982; doi:10.3390/w4040959
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many agriculture-based economies are increasingly under stress from climate change and socio-economic pressures. The excessive exploitation of natural resources still represents the standard procedure to achieve socio-economic development. In the area of the Moulouya river basin, Morocco, natural water availability represents a key
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Many agriculture-based economies are increasingly under stress from climate change and socio-economic pressures. The excessive exploitation of natural resources still represents the standard procedure to achieve socio-economic development. In the area of the Moulouya river basin, Morocco, natural water availability represents a key resource for all economic activities. Agriculture represents the most important sector, and frequently occurring water deficits are aggravated by climate change. On the basis of historical trends taken from CRU TS 2.1, this paper analyses the impact of climate change on the per capita water availability under inclusion of population trends. The Climatic Water Balance (CWB) shows a significant decrease for the winter period, causing adverse effects for the main agricultural season. Further, moisture losses due to increasing evapotranspiration rates indicate problems for the annual water budget and groundwater recharge. The per capita blue water availability falls below a minimum threshold of 500 m3 per year, denoting a high regional vulnerability to increasing water scarcity assuming a no-response scenario. Regional development focusing on the water-intense sectors of agriculture and tourism appears to be at risk. Institutional capacities and policies need to address the problem, and the prompt implementation of innovative water production and efficiency measures is recommended. Full article
Open AccessArticle Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus Shale Region, USA
Water 2012, 4(4), 983-994; doi:10.3390/w4040983
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 16 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 4 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially
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Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations. The potential for water contamination, land destruction, air pollution, and geologic disruption has raised concerns about the merits of production activities used during extraction. This paper looks at the impacts of horizontal drilling using hydraulic fracturing on water supplies and takes a comprehensive look at legislative and regulatory approaches to mitigate environmental risks in the Marcellus shale region. The overview identifies shortcomings associated with regulatory controls by local and state governments and offers two policy suggestions to better protect waters of the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality
Water 2012, 4(4), 995-1008; doi:10.3390/w4040995
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 25 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter) conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc®) was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions
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This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter) conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc®) was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hydraulic performance was assessed using stormwater runoff reduction (peaks and volumes) and surface infiltration capacity. Water quality performance for removal of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and three heavy metals: copper, lead and zinc, was assessed. Results from the study demonstrated that the inter-locking pavers were effective in attenuating stormwater runoff peak volumes. The surface infiltration capacity decreased significantly due to the deposition of sanding and de-icing materials on the pavement surface during winter operation. Infiltrated stormwater was stored and treated within the pavement structure, which showed removal rates of 91% for TSS, 78% for TP, 6% for TN, 68% for zinc, 69% for copper and 55% for lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya
Water 2012, 4(4), 1009-1024; doi:10.3390/w4041009
Received: 4 October 2012 / Revised: 4 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland
[...] Read more.
Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i) the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii) the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii) the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Urban Water Management as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Results from the Implementation of the Project “Water Against Climate Change (WATACLIC)”
Water 2012, 4(4), 1025-1038; doi:10.3390/w4041025
Received: 7 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The excessive use of water is damaging European groundwater and rivers: their environmental conditions are often below the “good status” that—according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60—should be reached by 2015. The already critical situation is tending to get worse because of climate change.
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The excessive use of water is damaging European groundwater and rivers: their environmental conditions are often below the “good status” that—according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60—should be reached by 2015. The already critical situation is tending to get worse because of climate change. Even in water rich countries, urban wastewater is still one of the main sources of water pollution. Currently, urban soil sealing and “conventional” rainwater management, which were planned to quickly move rainwater away from roofs and streets, are increasing the flood risk. “Green” technologies and approaches would permit a reduction in water abstraction and wastewater production while improving urban hydrological response to heavy rains. The Life+ WATACLIC project has been implemented to promote such sustainable technologies and approaches in Italy, however the results show huge difficulties: apparently water saving and sustainable urban water management have only low interest amongst the general public and even with public administrations and the relevant industrial sectors. In such a cultural and technical context, the project is bringing a new point of view to public debate. In the long term, the project will certainly have a positive impact, but most likely it will require more time than initially expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)

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