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Water, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-326

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Sustainable Water Systems
Water 2013, 5(1), 239-242; doi:10.3390/w5010239
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems [...] Read more.
Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches
Water 2013, 5(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/w5010001
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal [...] Read more.
Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation), or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005) was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts), correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle A Data Driven Approach to Bioretention Cell Performance: Prediction and Design
Water 2013, 5(1), 13-28; doi:10.3390/w5010013
Received: 24 November 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
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Abstract
Bioretention cells are an urban stormwater management technology used to address both water quality and quantity concerns. A lack of region-specific design guidelines has limited the widespread implementation of bioretention cells, particularly in cold climates. In this paper, experimental data are used [...] Read more.
Bioretention cells are an urban stormwater management technology used to address both water quality and quantity concerns. A lack of region-specific design guidelines has limited the widespread implementation of bioretention cells, particularly in cold climates. In this paper, experimental data are used to construct a multiple linear regression model to predict hydrological performance of bioretention cells. Nine different observed parameters are considered as candidates for regressors, of which inlet runoff volume and duration, and initial soil moisture were chosen. These three variables are used to construct six different regression models, which are tested against the observations. Statistical analysis showed that the amount of runoff captured by a bioretention cell can be successfully predicted by the inlet runoff volume and event duration. Historical data is then used to calculate runoff volume for a given duration, in different catchment types. This data is used in the regression model to predict bioretention cell performance. The results are then used to create a design tool which can assist in estimating bioretention cell size to meet different performance goals in southern Alberta. Examples on the functionality of the design tool are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle Stormwater Governance and Future Cities
Water 2013, 5(1), 29-52; doi:10.3390/w5010029
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban stormwater infrastructure traditionally promoted conveyance. Cities are increasingly designing stormwater infrastructure that integrates both conveyance and infiltration in hybrid systems to achieve public health, safety, environmental, and social goals. In addition, cities face decisions about distribution of responsibilities for stormwater management [...] Read more.
Urban stormwater infrastructure traditionally promoted conveyance. Cities are increasingly designing stormwater infrastructure that integrates both conveyance and infiltration in hybrid systems to achieve public health, safety, environmental, and social goals. In addition, cities face decisions about distribution of responsibilities for stormwater management and maintenance between institutions and landowners. Hybrid governance structures combine centralized and distributed management to facilitate planning, operations, funding, and maintenance. Effective governance in any management approach will require changes in the expertise of stormwater agencies. Recognizing the distinction between hybrid infrastructure and hybrid governance is important in long-term planning decisions for construction and management of stormwater systems. A framework is presented that relates the level and type of existing stormwater infrastructure with available capital, institutional development, and predominant citizen contributions. Cities with extensive existing infrastructure are increasingly integrating distributed, “green” approaches that promote infiltration, and must improve institutional expertise for governance decisions. For cities with little existing infrastructure, landowner management often dominates, especially when municipalities cannot keep pace with rapid growth. In between, rapidly industrializing cities are positioned to use growing capital resources to fund both conveyance and infiltration measures based on current design principles. For all cities, local management innovations, including decisions regarding public engagement, will be critical in shaping future urban stormwater systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Biosorption Activated Media Under Roadside Swales for the Removal of Phosphorus from Stormwater
Water 2013, 5(1), 53-66; doi:10.3390/w5010053
Received: 8 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stormwater runoff from highways is a source of pollution to surface water bodies and groundwater. Excess loadings of phosphorus in stormwater discharged to surface water bodies can result in eutrophication. Treatment of stormwater for phosphorus is necessary in order to sustain ecological [...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff from highways is a source of pollution to surface water bodies and groundwater. Excess loadings of phosphorus in stormwater discharged to surface water bodies can result in eutrophication. Treatment of stormwater for phosphorus is necessary in order to sustain ecological and economical benefits related to aquatic resources. If phosphorus is removed, the water can be sustained for other uses, such as irrigation and industrial applications. The data presented in this paper is used to evaluate the treatment performance of a roadside biosorption activated media system with regards to the removal of total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus from highway runoff. The evaluation also compares removal efficiencies and effluent concentrations using biosorption activated media (BAM) to that with sandy soil commonly found in the Florida area. The results presented in this paper indicate that BAM bio-filtration systems are a feasible treatment method for removing phosphorus from highway runoff. A discussion concerning the additional treatment and reuse of water by harvesting, as part of a Bio-filtration & Harvesting Swale System, is also presented in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia
Water 2013, 5(1), 197-223; doi:10.3390/w5010197
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 13 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. [...] Read more.
This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Effects of Flood Disasters Due to Hillside Development in Urban Areas
Water 2013, 5(1), 224-238; doi:10.3390/w5010224
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
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Abstract
In recent years, the Taiwan government has established a number of flood control facilities such as dikes, pumping stations and drainage systems to effectively reduce downstream flooding. However, with continued development and urbanization of catchment areas, the original designs of most flood [...] Read more.
In recent years, the Taiwan government has established a number of flood control facilities such as dikes, pumping stations and drainage systems to effectively reduce downstream flooding. However, with continued development and urbanization of catchment areas, the original designs of most flood control facilities have become outdated. Hillside lands in the upper and middle reaches of river basins have undergone urban development through unsound engineering practices, paving the way for heavy downstream flooding. Therefore, proper river basin management should include both upstream and downstream sides. The main purpose of the paper is to simulate non-urban inundation areas with various degrees of development (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%), over two different return periods of 25 years and 200 years, for intensive rainfall events in the Shi-Chi District, Taiwan. Through hydrological analysis and numerical simulations of inundation, quantitative data on inundation potential have been established based on the land development conditions along the hillsides on the upper and middle reaches of the Keelung River Basin. The simulated results show that the increase in the extent of land development in the upper reaches causes an increase in the area and depth of inundation, resulting in an increased risk of flooding in downstream areas. If the land-use policy makers in the upper reaches of the river basin’s hillsides do not properly manage the land development, the risk of flooding in downstream areas will increase. In such an event, the policy makers should first review the situation to understand the problem with the consideration of this study. Thus, proper development and flood mitigation in hillsides can be established. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed
Water 2013, 5(1), 243-261; doi:10.3390/w5010243
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River [...] Read more.
This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and surrounding tributaries. The objectives were to (1) assess the water quality in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli by comparing the available data to the water quality criteria established by Arizona, (2) to provide insights into fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) response to the hydrology of the watershed and (3) to identify if point sources or nonpoint sources are the major contributors of FIB in the stream. Assessment of the available wastewater treatment plant treated effluent data and in-stream sampling data indicate that water quality criteria for E. coli and fecal coliform in recreational waters are exceeded at all locations of the Santa Cruz River. For the wastewater discharge, 13%–15% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliform and 29% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli; while for the in-stream grab samples, 16%–34% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 cfu/100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliforms and 34%–75% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli. Elevated fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were positively correlated with periods of increased streamflow from rainfall. FIB concentrations observed in-stream are significantly greater (p-value < 0.0002) than wastewater treatment plants effluent concentrations; therefore, water quality managers should focus on nonpoint sources to reduce overall fecal indicator loads. Findings indicate that fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations are highly variable, especially along urban streams and generally increase with streamflow and precipitation events. Occurrences of peaks in FIB concentrations during baseflow conditions indicate that further assessment of ecological factors such as interaction with sediment, regrowth, and source tracking are important to watershed management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Model Assessment of P Transport from Soils to Waterways in an Eastern Mediterranean Watershed
Water 2013, 5(1), 262-279; doi:10.3390/w5010262
Received: 18 January 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
P index is a management tool commonly used to identify critical source areas (CSAs) in agro-catchments. We tested the applicability of several P-index models adjusted to Eastern Mediterranean conditions. On the basis of model structure and data requirements, we selected the Arkansas [...] Read more.
P index is a management tool commonly used to identify critical source areas (CSAs) in agro-catchments. We tested the applicability of several P-index models adjusted to Eastern Mediterranean conditions. On the basis of model structure and data requirements, we selected the Arkansas model and two models with the RUSLE equation and runoff curve number (RCN). Concurrently, we developed a GIS-based Hermon-P model which was designed to simulate rainfall–runoff events representing the major nutrient-transport mechanism in Eastern Mediterranean. The P index values computed by the Arkansas and RUSLE models exhibited low correlation (r2 < 0.32) with the measured soluble reactive (SRP) and total P (TP), while the RCN model result correlations were somewhat higher (r2 = 0.53 for SRP and 0.45 for TP). High correlations between the calculated and measured P during rainfall–runoff events were only achieved with the Hermon model (r2 = 0.77 to 0.9). These high coefficients resulted from avoiding subjective categorization of the continuous variables and using the measured site-specific erosional predictors instead. On one occasion, during the first significant runoff event of the year, the Hermon model failed to predict total P in the stream water (r2 = 0.14) because of considerable resuspension of stream sediments. Most of the P-index models are based on the perceptual transfer-continuum framework that was developed for temperate agro-catchments; this framework does not consider P resuspension along streams during rainfall–runoff events. Hence, a new set of equations should be added to the P index to account for potential resuspension in Eastern Mediterranean streams at the beginning of the hydrological year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management
Water 2013, 5(1), 280-291; doi:10.3390/w5010280
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected [...] Read more.
Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle A New Methodology for Evaluating Potential for Potable Water Savings (PPWS) by Using Rainwater Harvesting at the Urban Level: The Case of the Municipality of Colombes (Paris Region)
Water 2013, 5(1), 312-326; doi:10.3390/w5010312
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 2 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The practice of rainwater harvesting (RWH) is spreading rapidly in urban areas. This article studies the impact of a possible generalization of this practice for municipalities by proposing a new method to quantify the potential for potable water savings (PPWS) by using [...] Read more.
The practice of rainwater harvesting (RWH) is spreading rapidly in urban areas. This article studies the impact of a possible generalization of this practice for municipalities by proposing a new method to quantify the potential for potable water savings (PPWS) by using rainwater harvesting at the urban level. The proposed method is based on the adaptation of an already validated model assessing the PPWS for single buildings and the use of urban databases. Two concepts are introduced: (1) the “building type” that allows gathering all the buildings sharing common features; and (2) the “equivalent building,” which is used to assess the PPWS of a set of buildings (of a same building type) as if it were a single building. In the case of the municipality of Colombes (located in the suburbs of Paris), the method shows that the PPWS by using rainwater harvesting represents about 10% of the total potable water consumption: the residential buildings account for 64% of this potential. This method can be applied to other municipalities with a level of acceptable reliability with regard to the means to be implemented in terms of collecting information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Sustainable Drainage Practices in Spain, Specially Focused on Pervious Pavements
Water 2013, 5(1), 67-93; doi:10.3390/w5010067
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Spanish climate is full of contrasts, with torrential rains and long droughts; under these conditions, appropriate water management is essential. In Spain, until the end of the twentieth century, water management and legislative development lagged behind other more developed countries. Nowadays, [...] Read more.
The Spanish climate is full of contrasts, with torrential rains and long droughts; under these conditions, appropriate water management is essential. In Spain, until the end of the twentieth century, water management and legislative development lagged behind other more developed countries. Nowadays, great efforts are being made to reverse this situation and improve both water management and legislation in order to control the two main problems related to stormwater management in cities: floods and diffuse pollution. In this context, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) were developed as the main solution to these problems. The study of these techniques started in the 1970s in the USA, but they were not studied in Spain until 1993 when the University of Cantabria and CLABSA started to look into solutions for stormwater management. After 20 years of research and application, sustainable drainage in Spain is still behind other countries in spite of the efforts to change this situation, notably by the University of Cantabria with 10 years of experience in these techniques, mainly regarding pervious pavements, where more than 13 related research projects have been carried out. The future challenges focus on the application of pervious pavements for Urban Hydrological Rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessReview Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications
Water 2013, 5(1), 94-196; doi:10.3390/w5010094
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 25 January 2013
Cited by 109 | PDF Full-text (4311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent [...] Read more.
Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
Open AccessReview Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process
Water 2013, 5(1), 292-311; doi:10.3390/w5010292
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and [...] Read more.
This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)

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