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Special Issue "Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rolf David Vogt

Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Box 1033 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +4790615415
Fax: +47 22855441
Interests: environmental chemistry; biogeochemistry; eutrophication; water pollution; soil chemistry; environmental analysis; climate change; natural organic matter; acid rain; aluminum; heavy metals; chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a growing demand for more knowledge-based abatement actions on inorganic pollutants in the water environment. Grounds for this are large and increasing emissions in emerging economies (esp. China and India) and stricter regulations such as dictated in the Water Framework Directive in Europe. We need enhanced mechanistic understanding of the hydro-biogeochemical processes governing mobilization, transport, fate and effects of pollutants in order to assess and implement the best abatement actions. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in studies of pollutants and its role in transport of pollutants needs to be better understood. Climate change affects the hydrological cycle as well as temperature and may thus have an effect on the governing processes of importance for the concentration levels and ecological effects of water pollutants.

New advances in the environmental research are made possible through better analytical tools, including improved methodology for fractionation and/or speciation of the contaminants, and multivariate chemometric analysis on comprehensive environmental data. I would therefore like to call for papers where you share your recent discoveries within the field of inorganic pollution of the water environment.

Papers will be selected by peer review with the expected outcome being wide dissemination of research results. Original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of inorganic pollutants in water are of interest.

Prof. Dr. Rolf D. Vogt
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • policy relevant
  • governing mechanisms
  • effects of climate change
  • role of dissolved natural organic matter in transport of contaminants
  • heavy metals
  • nutrients
  • multivariate chemometrics
  • fractionation and speciation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of Timber Harvesting with Best Management Practices on Ecosystem Metabolism of a Low Gradient Stream on the United States Gulf Coastal Plain
Water 2013, 5(2), 747-766; doi:10.3390/w5020747
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stream metabolism can be used as a measure of freshwater ecosystem health because of its responsiveness to natural and anthropogenic changes. In this study, we used stream metabolic rates to test for the effects of a timber harvest with Louisiana’s current best management
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Stream metabolism can be used as a measure of freshwater ecosystem health because of its responsiveness to natural and anthropogenic changes. In this study, we used stream metabolic rates to test for the effects of a timber harvest with Louisiana’s current best management practices (BMPs). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2010 in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stand in north-central Louisiana, USA, 45 ha of which was clear cut harvested in the summer of 2007. Dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, and stream depth were recorded at a site upstream (serving as a reference) and a site downstream of the harvested area. Using diurnal DO change and an open-system, single-station method at each site, we quantified rates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP), gross primary productivity (GPP), community respiration (CR), and the GPP/CR ratio. The system was predominately heterotrophic, with a GPP/CR ratio of less than one for 82% of the time at the upstream site. No calculated metabolic rate was significantly changed by the timber harvest (two-way ANOVA with interaction; p < 0.001). Overall, the results suggest that timber harvests of similar intensity with Louisiana’s current BMPs may not significantly impact stream biological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin
Water 2013, 5(2), 379-393; doi:10.3390/w5020379
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004) river discharge and water quality records from an upriver
[...] Read more.
Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004) river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen), nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2), total phosphorous (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC) through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%), TP (41%), and TOC (12%), but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%). On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle Combining Ecosystem Service and Critical Load Concepts for Resource Management and Public Policy
Water 2012, 4(4), 905-913; doi:10.3390/w4040905
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES) and critical load (CL). The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and
[...] Read more.
Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES) and critical load (CL). The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and CL principles for public land management and natural resource policy decision-making. One well known example that is appropriate for ES and CL evaluation is examined here: the acidification of soil and drainage water by atmospheric deposition of acidifying sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A conceptual framework illustrates how the ES and CL approaches can be combined in a way that enhances the strengths of each. This framework will aid in the process of translating ES and CL principles into land management and natural resource policy decision-making by documenting the impacts of pollution on environmental goods and services that benefit humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Perspectives on Geochemical, Microbial and Anthropogenic Issues
Water 2011, 3(4), 1050-1076; doi:10.3390/w3041050
Received: 14 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A groundwater, sediment and soil chemistry and mineralogical study has been performed to investigate the sources and mobilization process of Arsenic (As) in shallow aquifers of Bangladesh. The groundwater from the shallow aquifers is characterized by high concentrations of Arsenic (47.5–216.8 µg/L), iron
[...] Read more.
A groundwater, sediment and soil chemistry and mineralogical study has been performed to investigate the sources and mobilization process of Arsenic (As) in shallow aquifers of Bangladesh. The groundwater from the shallow aquifers is characterized by high concentrations of Arsenic (47.5–216.8 µg/L), iron (0.85–5.83 mg/L), and phosphate, along with high electrical conductivity (EC). The groundwater has both very low oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values indicating reducing conditions. By contrast, the deep aquifers and surface waters (pond, canal) have very low concentrations of Arsenic ( < 6 µg/L), iron (0.12–0.39 mg/L), and phosphate along with a relatively low EC. Furthermore, the values of Eh and DO are high, indicating oxic to suboxic conditions. Arsenic is inversely correlated with Eh values in the upper aquifer, whereas no relationship in the deeper aquifer is observed. These results suggest that As mobilization is clearly linked to the development of reducing conditions. The clayey silt, enriched in Fe, Mn, Al oxides and organic matter, and deposited in the middle unit of shallow aquifers, contains moderately high concentrations of As, whereas the sediments of deep aquifers and silty mud surface soils from paddy fields and ponds contain a low content of As (Daudkandi area). Arsenic is strongly correlated with the concentrations of Fe, Mn and Al oxides in the core samples from the Daudkandi and Marua areas. Arsenic is present in the oxide phase of Fe and Mn, phyllosilicate minerals and in organic matter in sediments. This study suggests that adsorption or precipitation of As-rich Fe oxyhydroxide on the surface or inner sites of biotite might be responsible for As concentrations found in altered biotite minerals by Seddique et al. Microbially or geochemically mediated reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides is the main mechanism for As release. The reducing conditions are caused by respiratory decomposition of organic matter, either sedimentary or labile organic C. The process can be accelerated by agricultural activity and domestic organic wastes. An agricultural fertilizer can directly contribute As to groundwater as well as promote As mobilization by ion-exchange with phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Quality Status of Rivers for the Water Framework Directive: A Case Study of Toxic Metals in North West England
Water 2011, 3(2), 649-666; doi:10.3390/w3020650
Received: 17 April 2011 / Revised: 27 May 2011 / Accepted: 28 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the
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This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the tributary rivers of the Calder and Douglas. Across the basins that include areas of rural, urban and industrial typologies, data is presented for three of the priority substances in the Water Framework Directive i.e., nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Average concentrations are low and well below the Environmental Quality Standards values for all three of these substances. Cadmium and Pb appear in approximately equal proportions in the dissolved (0.45 µm) whilst Ni occurs predominantly in the dissolved form (92%). Regional inputs of these metals arise mostly from diffuse sources as the storm-flow concentrations are generally greater than at base-flow condition. Greater concentrations of Ni are transported at the headwaters and smaller tributary sites under storm flow condition than for the main stream of the Ribble. For Ni, amounts increase as the river proceeds from its headwaters down towards the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, whilst Cd and Pb show consistent values throughout the catchment. There is annual cycling of dissolved concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni for the clean headwater streams that gives maxima during the latter half of the year when the river flow is greater. For the impacted sites the pattern is less distinct or absent. Our estimates suggest that the Ribble estuary receives 550 t y−1 of dissolved Ni, 16 t y−1 of dissolved Cd and 240 t y−1 of dissolved Pb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Inorganic Nitrogen Deposition and Its Impacts on N:P-Ratios and Lake Productivity
Water 2013, 5(2), 327-341; doi:10.3390/w5020327
Received: 21 February 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 25 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pronounced increase in the cycling and deposition of biologically reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) over large areas globally not only cause increased concentrations of DIN in surface waters, but it will also affect nutrient ratios in rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This
[...] Read more.
The pronounced increase in the cycling and deposition of biologically reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) over large areas globally not only cause increased concentrations of DIN in surface waters, but it will also affect nutrient ratios in rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This review addresses the flux and fate of DIN, focusing NO3 in lakes of boreal and alpine catchments. Not only DIN-deposition, but also catchment properties strongly affect the concentrations of NO3 in lakes, as well as NO3:total P (TP) ratios. This ratio displays an extreme variability, and does also serve as an indicator of shift between N and P-limitation of aquatic autotrophs. A high share of forests and bogs in the catchment generally decreases NO3:total P ratios, while alpine and subalpine catchments with sparse vegetation cover may have high NO3:total P ratios, especially in regions with high DIN-deposition. Several empirical and experimental studies indicate a shift from an initial N to P-limitation, but for N-limited lakes, an increased growth of phytoplankton, periphytes and macrophytes may be accredited to elevated inputs of DIN. An intensified P-limitation may also be a consequence of elevated DIN-deposition. This P-limitation may again yield higher C:P-ratios in autotrophs with negative impacts on grazers and higher trophic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)

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