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Special Issue "Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-440-238-0407
Fax: +1 216 6872596
Interests: water supply and water treatment; municipal wastewater treatment; industrial waste treatment; hazardous waste treatment; biological waste treatment; water pollution control
Guest Editor
Dr. Yen-Pei Fu

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shou-Feng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: synthesis; processing and application of nanomaterials; nanomagnetic materials; nanoceramics; ceramics materials and processing; materials for solid oxide fuel cell

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wastewater treatment has changed over the last thirty years, transforming from designing treatment technologies for suitable discharge into nature water bodies, using techniques such as conventional activated sludge and trickling filters, to solving various human health issues such as recycling wastewater, providing solutions to poor waste treatment, and preventative measures for pollution. The reason for the transition has simply been not only to see alternative treatment methods to creating a return such saving on energy costs within operation, but also in generating something that produce energy or be reused in other operations.Therefore, we would like to call for papers to disseminate and share findings on wastewater treatment and pollution control related research in addressing the problem of sustainability scientifically.
Papers are selected by a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and application.

Original research paper or reviews are invited in the following and related areas:

  • Natural wastewater treatment processes
  • Water reclamation and reuse
  • Wastewater treatment in developing countries
  • On-site wastewater treatment methods
  • Energy recovery and sustainable wastewater treatment
  • Ponds for wastewater treatment
  • Wetland for wastewater treatment
  • Green technology for wastewater treatment

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Prof. Dr. Yen-Pei Fu
Guest Editors

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • constructed wetlands
  • grey water
  • advanced oxidation treatment
  • centralized treatment systems
  • chemical oxidation treatment
  • wastewater management
  • sustainable wastewater treatment
  • cost-effective treatment
  • energy saving treatment
  • wastewater reuse
  • ponds for wastewater treatment
  • biogas digestion
  • natural wastewater treatment systems
  • land treatment of wastewater
  • green technology for wastewater treatment

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Preliminary Study on the Effect of Wastewater Storage in Septic Tank on E. coli Concentration in Summer
Water 2013, 5(3), 1141-1151; doi:10.3390/w5031141
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage
[...] Read more.
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage through the tank. In this study, which was conducted under the UGA young Scholar Program in summer of 2010, we examined the change in wastewater quality parameters during the passage of the wastewater through the tank and after its release into soil. We collected wastewater samples at the inlet and outlet of an experimental septic tank in addition to obtaining water samples from lysimeters below trenches where the drainpipes were buried. We report that E. coli concentration was higher by 100-fold in the septic tank effluent than influent wastewater samples, indicating the growth of E. coli inside the tank under typical Georgian summer weather. This is contrary to the assumption that E. coli cells do not grow outside their host and suggests that the microbial load of the wastewater is potentially enhanced during its storage in the tank. Electrical conductivity, pH and nitrogen were similar between the influent and effluent wastewater samples. E. coli and total coliform concentrations were mainly below detection in lysimeter samples, indicating the effectiveness of the soil in treating the wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study
Water 2013, 5(3), 1006-1035; doi:10.3390/w5031006
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on
[...] Read more.
Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems
Water 2013, 5(3), 893-916; doi:10.3390/w5030893
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs) compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF) CWs were built to
[...] Read more.
We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs) compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF) CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA) and scattered- (VB) oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA) and gravels (HB). The BOD, NO3, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg) as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg). The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Microbial Community Structure of a Leachfield Soil: Response to Intermittent Aeration and Tetracycline Addition
Water 2013, 5(2), 505-524; doi:10.3390/w5020505
Received: 22 January 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil-based wastewater treatment systems, or leachfields, rely on microbial processes for improving the quality of wastewater before it reaches the groundwater. These processes are affected by physicochemical system properties, such as O2 availability, and disturbances, such as the presence of antimicrobial compounds in
[...] Read more.
Soil-based wastewater treatment systems, or leachfields, rely on microbial processes for improving the quality of wastewater before it reaches the groundwater. These processes are affected by physicochemical system properties, such as O2 availability, and disturbances, such as the presence of antimicrobial compounds in wastewater. We examined the microbial community structure of leachfield mesocosms containing native soil and receiving domestic wastewater under intermittently-aerated (AIR) and unaerated (LEACH) conditions before and after dosing with tetracycline (TET). Community structure was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), analysis of dominant phylotypes using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE), and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Prior to dosing, the same PLFA biomarkers were found in soil from AIR and LEACH treatments, although AIR soil had a larger active microbial population and higher concentrations for nine of 32 PLFA markers found. AIR soil also had a larger number of dominant phylotypes, most of them unique to this treatment. Dosing of mesocosms with TET had a more marked effect on AIR than LEACH soil, reducing the size of the microbial population and the number and concentration of PLFA markers. Dominant phylotypes decreased by ~15% in response to TET in both treatments, although the AIR treatment retained a higher number of phylotypes than the LEACH treatment. Fewer than 10% of clones were common to both OPEN ACCESS Water 2013, 5 506 AIR and LEACH soil, and fewer than 25% of the clones from either treatment were homologous with isolates of known genus and species. These included human pathogens, as well as bacteria involved in biogeochemical transformations of C, N, S and metals, and biodegradation of various organic contaminants. Our results show that intermittent aeration has a marked effect on the size and structure of the microbial community that develops in a native leachfield soil. In addition, there is a differential response of the microbial communities of AIR and LEACH soil to tetracycline addition which may be linked to changes in function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Figures

Open AccessArticle CO2 Emission Factor for Rainwater and Reclaimed Water Used in Buildings in Japan
Water 2013, 5(2), 394-404; doi:10.3390/w5020394
Received: 24 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From the standpoint of the preservation of water resources, rainwater and reclaimed water have been widely used in buildings in many countries. However, the CO2 emission factors of these two waters—factors that determine their environmental impacts—have not been calculated. In a previous
[...] Read more.
From the standpoint of the preservation of water resources, rainwater and reclaimed water have been widely used in buildings in many countries. However, the CO2 emission factors of these two waters—factors that determine their environmental impacts—have not been calculated. In a previous study, the CO2 emission factor of water for waterworks and sewer systems was determined. In this paper, we evaluate the emission factors of rainwater and reclaimed water in the same manner. First, the emission factor for pumping water in buildings is determined using published values for operating performances. About half of the residential dwellings in Japan are multistory apartments, and these apartments use pumps for the delivery of water. The emission factor of pumping is calculated as 0.69 kg CO2/m3, which adds 16% to the emission factor of waterworks and sewer systems. Next, the CO2 emission factors of rainwater and reclaimed water are calculated for different water delivery cases in buildings. As a result, it is found that the use of reclaimed water increases CO2 emissions by 62%, compared to the use of ordinary water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater
Water 2013, 5(2), 342-355; doi:10.3390/w5020342
Received: 22 January 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a new ferric chloride-(polyvinylpyrrolidone-grafted-polyacrylamide) hybrid copolymer was successfully synthesized by free radical polymerization in solution using ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The hybrid copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a new ferric chloride-(polyvinylpyrrolidone-grafted-polyacrylamide) hybrid copolymer was successfully synthesized by free radical polymerization in solution using ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The hybrid copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface methodology (RSM), involving central composite design (CCD) matrix with two of the most important operating variables in the flocculation process; hybrid copolymer dosage and pH were utilized for the study and for the optimization of the wastewater treatment process. Response surface analyses showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted to quadratic polynomial models. Under the optimum conditions, the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were 96.4% and 83.5% according to RSM optimization, whereas the optimum removals based on the genetic algorithm (GA) were 96.56% and 83.54% for the turbidity and COD removal models. Based on these results, wastewater treatment using this novel hybrid copolymer has proved to be an effective alternative in the overseeing of turbidity and COD problems of municipal wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed
Water 2013, 5(1), 243-261; doi:10.3390/w5010243
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and
[...] Read more.
This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and surrounding tributaries. The objectives were to (1) assess the water quality in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli by comparing the available data to the water quality criteria established by Arizona, (2) to provide insights into fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) response to the hydrology of the watershed and (3) to identify if point sources or nonpoint sources are the major contributors of FIB in the stream. Assessment of the available wastewater treatment plant treated effluent data and in-stream sampling data indicate that water quality criteria for E. coli and fecal coliform in recreational waters are exceeded at all locations of the Santa Cruz River. For the wastewater discharge, 13%–15% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliform and 29% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli; while for the in-stream grab samples, 16%–34% of sample concentrations exceeded the 800 cfu/100 mL sample maximum for fecal coliforms and 34%–75% of samples exceeded the full body contact standard of 235 cfu/100 mL established for E. coli. Elevated fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were positively correlated with periods of increased streamflow from rainfall. FIB concentrations observed in-stream are significantly greater (p-value < 0.0002) than wastewater treatment plants effluent concentrations; therefore, water quality managers should focus on nonpoint sources to reduce overall fecal indicator loads. Findings indicate that fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations are highly variable, especially along urban streams and generally increase with streamflow and precipitation events. Occurrences of peaks in FIB concentrations during baseflow conditions indicate that further assessment of ecological factors such as interaction with sediment, regrowth, and source tracking are important to watershed management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Fungal Waste-Biomasses as Potential Low-Cost Biosorbents for Decolorization of Textile Wastewaters
Water 2012, 4(4), 770-784; doi:10.3390/w4040770
Received: 28 July 2012 / Revised: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biosorption potential of three fungal waste-biomasses (Acremonium strictum, Acremonium sp. and Penicillium sp.) from pharmaceutical companies was compared with that of a selected biomass (Cunninghamella elegans), already proven to be very effective in dye biosorption. Among the waste-biomasses,
[...] Read more.
The biosorption potential of three fungal waste-biomasses (Acremonium strictum, Acremonium sp. and Penicillium sp.) from pharmaceutical companies was compared with that of a selected biomass (Cunninghamella elegans), already proven to be very effective in dye biosorption. Among the waste-biomasses, A. strictum was the most efficient (decolorization percentage up to 90% within 30 min) with regard to three simulated dye baths; nevertheless it was less active than C. elegans which was able to produce a quick and substantial decolorization of all the simulated dye baths (up to 97% within 30 min). The biomasses of A. strictum and C. elegans were then tested for the treatment of nine real exhausted dye baths. A. strictum was effective at acidic or neutral pH, whereas C. elegans confirmed its high efficiency and versatility towards exhausted dye baths characterised by different classes of dyes (acid, disperse, vat, reactive) and variation in pH and ionic strength. Finally, the effect of pH on the biosorption process was evaluated to provide a realistic estimation of the validity of the laboratory results in an industrial setting. The C. elegans biomass was highly effective from pH 3 to pH 11 (for amounts of adsorbed dye up to 1054 and 667 mg of dye g−1 biomass dry weight, respectively); thus, this biomass can be considered an excellent and exceptionally versatile biosorbent material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan
Water 2012, 4(4), 759-769; doi:10.3390/w4040759
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From the viewpoint of combating global warming in Japan, measures to reduce emissions from the activities involved in daily life have been accelerated in concurrence with the efforts made in the industrial sector to save energy. As one such measure, the reduction of
[...] Read more.
From the viewpoint of combating global warming in Japan, measures to reduce emissions from the activities involved in daily life have been accelerated in concurrence with the efforts made in the industrial sector to save energy. As one such measure, the reduction of energy consumption in waterworks and sewer systems by reducing the volume of water used in the housing sector is gaining attention; measures for the conversion of water saving into CO2 reduction credit in the domestic credit system are also being examined. To address the credit development for CO2 reduction by water saving, it was necessary to determine the CO2 emission factor for water. Hence, we calculated the CO2 emission factor of water use in Japan and determined the value to be 0.376 kg CO2/m3 which applied the generating end electricity value. In addition, since electricity contributes to 90% of the energy consumption of the waterworks and sewer systems of Japan and since the emission factor for electricity changes with the power source composition ratio, the CO2 emission factor for water also needs to be updated to match the emission factor for electricity. We therefore developed a calculation equation for updating this emission factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle Upgrading of Wastewater Treatment Plants Through the Use of Unconventional Treatment Technologies: Removal of Lidocaine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine and Their Metabolites
Water 2012, 4(3), 650-669; doi:10.3390/w4030650
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC), tramadol (TRA) and venlafaxine (VEN), and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies.
[...] Read more.
The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC), tramadol (TRA) and venlafaxine (VEN), and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies. In parallel to activated sludge treatment, the removal efficiency of the compounds in pilot- and full-scale projects installed at the WWTPs was investigated. Within these projects two different treatment methods were tested: adsorption onto powdered/granulated activated carbon (PAC/GAC) and ozonation. The metabolite MEGX was not detected in any sample. The concentrations of the target analytes in wastewater effluents resulting from activated sludge treatment ranged from 55 to 183 (LDC), 88 to 416 (TRA), 50 to 245 (ODT), 22 to 176 (VEN) and 77 to 520 ng L−1 (ODV). In the pilot project with subsequent treatment with PAC/GAC, the mean concentrations of the analytes were between Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States
Water 2013, 5(3), 1346-1365; doi:10.3390/w5031346
Received: 22 June 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of
[...] Read more.
The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals have been observed to reenter the built water environment contained in raw drinking water, and they remain detectable in finished drinking water at concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. The greatest promises for minimizing pharmaceutical contamination include source control (for example, inputs from intentional flushing of medications for safe disposal, and sewer overflows), and improving efficiency of treatment facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessReview Synergistic Water-Treatment Reactors Using a TiO2-Modified Ti-Mesh Filter
Water 2013, 5(3), 1101-1115; doi:10.3390/w5031101
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent applications of a TiO2-modified Ti-mesh filter (TMiP™) for water purification are summarized with newly collected data including biological assays as well as sewage water treatment. The water purification reactors consist of the combination of a TMiP, a UV lamp,
[...] Read more.
The recent applications of a TiO2-modified Ti-mesh filter (TMiP™) for water purification are summarized with newly collected data including biological assays as well as sewage water treatment. The water purification reactors consist of the combination of a TMiP, a UV lamp, an excimer VUV lamp, and an ozonation unit. The water purification abilities of the reactor were evaluated by decomposition of organic contaminants, inactivation of waterborne pathogens, and treatment efficiency for sewage water. The UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor disinfected E. coli in aqueous suspension in approximately 1 min completely, and also decreased the number of E. coli in sewage water in 15 min dramatically. The observed rate constants of 7.5 L/min and 1.3 L/min were calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis respectively. Although organic substances in sewage water were supposed to prevent the UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor from purifying water, the reactor reduced E. coli in sewage water continuously. On the other hand, although much higher efficiencies for decomposition of organic pollutants in water were achieved in the excimer/TMiP reactor, the disinfection activity of the reactor for waterborne pathogens was not as effective as the other reactors. The difference of efficiency between organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens in the excimer/TMiP reactor may be due to the size, the structure, and the decomposition mechanism of the organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens. These results show that a suitable system assisted by synergy of photocatalysts and other technologies such as ozonation has a huge potential as a practical wastewater purification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessReview Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process
Water 2013, 5(1), 292-311; doi:10.3390/w5010292
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the
[...] Read more.
This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)

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