Water 2012, 4(4), 995-1008; doi:10.3390/w4040995

Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality

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Received: 10 October 2012; in revised form: 25 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Water Management)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter) conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc®) was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hydraulic performance was assessed using stormwater runoff reduction (peaks and volumes) and surface infiltration capacity. Water quality performance for removal of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and three heavy metals: copper, lead and zinc, was assessed. Results from the study demonstrated that the inter-locking pavers were effective in attenuating stormwater runoff peak volumes. The surface infiltration capacity decreased significantly due to the deposition of sanding and de-icing materials on the pavement surface during winter operation. Infiltrated stormwater was stored and treated within the pavement structure, which showed removal rates of 91% for TSS, 78% for TP, 6% for TN, 68% for zinc, 69% for copper and 55% for lead.
Keywords: infiltration; permeable pavement; on-site treatment; pollutant removal; runoff reduction; stormwater management; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, J.; Valeo, C.; He, J.; Chu, A. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality. Water 2012, 4, 995-1008.

AMA Style

Huang J, Valeo C, He J, Chu A. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality. Water. 2012; 4(4):995-1008.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Jian; Valeo, Caterina; He, Jianxun; Chu, Angus. 2012. "Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality." Water 4, no. 4: 995-1008.

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