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Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality
Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2012; in revised form: 25 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter) conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc®) was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hydraulic performance was assessed using stormwater runoff reduction (peaks and volumes) and surface infiltration capacity. Water quality performance for removal of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and three heavy metals: copper, lead and zinc, was assessed. Results from the study demonstrated that the inter-locking pavers were effective in attenuating stormwater runoff peak volumes. The surface infiltration capacity decreased significantly due to the deposition of sanding and de-icing materials on the pavement surface during winter operation. Infiltrated stormwater was stored and treated within the pavement structure, which showed removal rates of 91% for TSS, 78% for TP, 6% for TN, 68% for zinc, 69% for copper and 55% for lead.
Keywords: infiltration; permeable pavement; on-site treatment; pollutant removal; runoff reduction; stormwater management; water quality
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Huang, J.; Valeo, C.; He, J.; Chu, A. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality. Water 2012, 4, 995-1008.
Huang J, Valeo C, He J, Chu A. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality. Water. 2012; 4(4):995-1008.
Huang, Jian; Valeo, Caterina; He, Jianxun; Chu, Angus. 2012. "Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality." Water 4, no. 4: 995-1008.