Special Issue "Ecological Watershed Management"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Keith Smettem
School of Environmental Systems Engineering, The University of Western Australia (M015), 35 Stirling Highway, CRAWLEY WA 6009, Australia
Website: http://www.uwa.edu.au/people/keith.smettem
E-Mail: keith.smettem@uwa.edu.au
Interests: water and chemical transport processes; riparian zones; ecohydrology; runoff and land use change; ecological watershed response to climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades watershed management has seen a paradigm shift from predominantly supply-based considerations of water quantity and quality to broader considerations of the ecological services provided by watersheds and a more holistic perspective interested in understanding and managing feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes. In addition, attempts have been made to value multiple environmental services that arise from changes in watershed management.

Land use and climate change exert significant impacts on the ecology and hydrology of watersheds. The signals can be reinforcing (increased runoff from deforestation in a wetting climate) or opposing (decreasing runoff in a drying climate), depending on location. We have also entered a period where the stationarity of climate cannot be assumed and where there is evidence of increasing fluctuation between extremes.

We seek to understand how to observe and account for these processes in the ecological management of watersheds for the benefit of future generations and so this issue brings together both theoretical and applied studies on watershed eco-hydrological responses to land use and climate change.

Prof. Dr. Keith Smettem
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • water and chemical transport processes
  • riparian zones
  • ecohydrology
  • runoff and land use change
  • ecological watershed response to climate change

Published Papers (17 papers)

by  and
Water 2014, 6(9), 2539-2551; doi:10.3390/w6092539
Received: 18 February 2014; in revised form: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
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by ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 1440; doi:10.3390/w5031440
Received: 6 September 2013; Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
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by ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 1243-1261; doi:10.3390/w5031243
Received: 12 June 2013; in revised form: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
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by , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 1226-1242; doi:10.3390/w5031226
Received: 20 May 2013; in revised form: 20 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
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by  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 988-1005; doi:10.3390/w5030988
Received: 21 April 2013; in revised form: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
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abstract graphic

by , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 917-944; doi:10.3390/w5030917
Received: 23 April 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
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abstract graphic

by , , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 945-971; doi:10.3390/w5030945
Received: 12 April 2013; in revised form: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
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by , , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 852-874; doi:10.3390/w5030852
Received: 10 April 2013; in revised form: 1 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
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by , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(3), 875-892; doi:10.3390/w5030875
Received: 1 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
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by  and
Water 2013, 5(2), 819-833; doi:10.3390/w5020819
Received: 25 April 2013; in revised form: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(2), 780-797; doi:10.3390/w5020780
Received: 15 April 2013; in revised form: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
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by ,  and
Water 2013, 5(2), 728-746; doi:10.3390/w5020728
Received: 1 April 2013; in revised form: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
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by , , , ,  and
Water 2013, 5(2), 540-559; doi:10.3390/w5020540
Received: 19 February 2013; in revised form: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
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by ,  and
Water 2013, 5(2), 443-461; doi:10.3390/w5020443
Received: 28 January 2013; in revised form: 26 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textCorrection | Supplementary Files

by
Water 2013, 5(1), 280-291; doi:10.3390/w5010280
Received: 18 February 2013; in revised form: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
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by ,  and
Water 2013, 5(1), 262-279; doi:10.3390/w5010262
Received: 18 January 2013; in revised form: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
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by ,  and
Water 2012, 4(4), 944-958; doi:10.3390/w4040944
Received: 27 September 2012; in revised form: 10 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type: Article
Title: Surface Runoff and Water Quality Effects of Oil Natural Gas Development in the Haynesville Shale, East Texas, USA.
Authors: Matthew W. McBroom 1,*, Todd N. Thomas 2 and Yanli Zhang1
Affiliations: 1 Stephen F. Austin State University, Box 6109 SFA Station, Nacogdoches, TX 75962; mcbroommatth@sfasu.edu; yzhang2@sfasu.edu; 2 Texas Forest Service, P.O. Box 310 Lufkin, TX 75901; tthomas@tfs.tamu.edu
Abstract: Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons, development of oil and natural gas in the Haynesville Shale in the southeastern United States has increased dramatically.  Well pad spacing in some areas has increased from one well per 260 ha to one per 16 ha.  A 1.4 ha well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas (F1), while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2).  V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and water quality was measured.  The ArcAPEX Model was used to estimate land use effects and runoff.  For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2.  Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 26,094 kg ha-1 versus 4,100 kg ha-1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis.  These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111-224 kg ha-1).  Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2.  While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate construction practices like leaving streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.
Keywords: Water Quality; Surface Runoff; Oil and Natural Gas Development; Sedimentation; Erosion; APEX Model; Best Management Practices; riparian buffers

Title: Assessment of river mouths as unionid refugia along a Laurentian Great Lake
Authors: Trevor Prescott 1, Robert A. Krebs 1, and David A. Klarer 2
Affiliations: 1 Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, OH 44115; 2 Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve, 2514 Cleveland Road, East Huron, OH 44839. Phone: 419-433-4601 Email: David.Klarer@dnr.state.oh.us
Abstract: Invasion of lakes and rivers by dreissenid mussels since the 1990’s have pushed out native species, particularly native freshwater mussels in the Unionidae across the northern hemisphere, and perhaps most infamously, within the U.S. Great Lakes.  However, several small coastal areas along Lake Erie were identified as refugia for native species, but the conditions under which native species may persist are unknown. We tested the possibility that unionid species may frequently be using river mouths (freshwater estuaries) even of small streams as refugia along the Lake Erie coastline. For nine such streams, we assessed possible variation in mussel diversity, land use and water chemistry as they relate to the unique characteristics of the stream-lake interface. Sampling focused on stream zones influenced by lake-water levels for three streams each in the western basin, central basin and Sandusky Bay regions of Lake Erie...  Eight of the nine streams possessed mussels, and while diversity is well below historical levels, nine species were found living near the lake: Pyganodon grandis (7 streams), Toxolasma parvum (5 streams), Quadrula quadrula (5 streams), Lasmigona complanata (5 streams), Leptodea fragilis (4 streams), and Utterbackia imbecillus (2 streams), while Amblema plicata, Obliquaria reflexa and Uniomerus tetralasmus were found each in only one stream.  Diversity levels were not affected by any distinct bathymetric features, although water chemistry impacted diversity subtly and land use (details pending) correlated with species numbers. Importantly, river mouths are potential refugia for unionid mussels in regions exposed to dreissenid infestation, and these areas must return to or come under regulatory control to monitor habitat alteration and building projects, a process stopped in this region following the belief the dreissenid mussels had eradicated all species of interest.

Title: Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of the Little Choctawhatchee River
Authors: Jonathan M. Miller and Paul M. Stewart
Affiliation: Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL, 36082; E-Mail: mstewart@troy.edu
Abstract: Riverine dams not only alter the physical environment but affect water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments.  Nationwide, dam construction is on the decline, and there is a growing trend of dam removal.  The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR), a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River.  The stated function of the previously proposed reservoir was for water supply, but development was a controversial yet officially unstated issue.  While this permit application has been suspended, history shows that this or related projects are expected to arise in the future.  This study collected data on nutrient quality seasonally (four times) from 12 sites in the LCR watershed from October 2007 to June 2008 in order to determine pre-dam conditions and to compare these data to historical and regional information.  Historical and current nutrient concentrations were elevated throughout the watershed, in most cases above suggested criteria, and suggested that water quality of the river was and continues to be degraded, e.g., nutrient rich.  A future reservoir at recent levels of water quality will likely be highly eutrophic, and anthropogenic influences will further stress this ecosystem and its water quality as the urban region expands.

Title: A Multi-Component Examination of Watershed Recovery to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Western North Carolina and Its Implications to Ecological Watershed Management Practices
Authors: Miller, Jerry; Bates, Peter; Martin, Thomas; and Sinclair, Jacob
Affiliation: Department of Geosciences & Natural Resources, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723; E-Mails: jmiller@email.wcu.edu; bates@email.wcu.edu; con_TomMartin@email.wcu.edu; jtsinclair1@catamount.wcu.edu
Abstract: Significant effort has been expended during the past several decades on documenting the geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to both natural and human disturbances.  Much less attention has been devoted to understanding the changes that occur in the various components of a watershed once the disturbance has been removed.  Here, we examine the nature, rates, and degree to which geomorphic processes, water quality, aquatic habitat, aquatic biota, and forest ecosystems have recovered to wide spread anthropogenic disturbances during the early to mid-1900s within the Allen Creek Watershed of western North Carolina.  The watershed serves as an excellent location to examine recovery processes as the town of Waynesville began acquiring property in the watershed around 1913 for the purpose of creating a reservoir and by the mid-1970s had acquired most of the catchment.  Today the entire watershed is publically owned with restricted access.  Thus, the watershed has had nearly four decades to recover from extensive anthropogenic activities.  The investigation demonstrates that the rates and degree of recovery vary between the various components of the catchment, but some components such as water quality have returned to the conditions expected prior to disturbance.  The results of the study provide important insights into (1) the degree and rates of change that can be expected if watersheds are left to “naturally” recover, and (2) the management and restoration practices that may be utilized to aid in the ecological recovery process.   

Title: Ecological Watershed Management from a Hydropower Perspective
Authors: Ryan A. McManamay, Mark S. Bevelhimer
Affilaition: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37922; E-Mail: mcmanamayra@ornl.gov; bevelhimerms@ornl.gov
Abstract: In order to achieve a holistic watershed perspective in managing river flow for ecological and hydropower needs, rivers and dams must be placed in appropriate hydrologic, geomorphic, and operational contexts, which form the groundwork for water policy.  The purpose of this paper is to review some of the major paradigm shifts in managing multi-faceted environmental flow needs, in general, and then specifically discuss their application to dam regulation.  We also provide some examples and new insights into applying the latest paradigms to flow management below dams, especially in light of uncertainty (e.g. climate change), policy constraints, and hydropower development.   Managing environmental flows is a relatively recent science (last 4 decades).  Environmental flow (E-flow) standards below dams have evolved from static minimal water quantities (minimum flows) for individual streams to broader, more regionally-based community and ecosystem needs.  Likewise, tools for E-flow management have also evolved ranging from modeled stage-specific population responses, to pre- and post- dam hydrologic assessments, to community and ecosystem decision-based modeling.   We provide evidence that hydrologic and dam-operation classification systems show great promise in placing river systems into appropriate contexts and providing ecologically relevant flow standards.  Although these standards can provide a starting point for E-flow management in hydropower situations, the individuality of regulated river systems requires establishing feedback loops between implementation and monitoring ecological, geomorphic, temperature responses to new flow regimes.  We provide a conceptual framework to organize E-flow development and implementation with regard to hydropower demands in light of regulatory constraints.

Title: Space-time organization of vegetation and its interaction with hydrological processes
Authors: Salvatore Manfreda 1 and Kelly K. Caylor 2
Affiliations: 1 School of Engineering, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza 85100, Italy; E-Mail: salvatore.manfreda76@gmail.com;
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA; E-Mail: kelly.caylor@me.com
Abstract: Society is facing growing environmental problems that require new research efforts to understand the way ecosystems operate and survive and their mutual relationships with the hydrologic cycle. This is fundamental to advance predictive models used by researchers, industry, and environmental managers. In this frame, ecohydrology suggests a renewed interdisciplinary approach that aims to improved forecasting and mitigation of flood and drought risk, better understanding the implications of land use changes on terrestrial ecosystems, improve weather and climate predictions, to provide a better comprehension of the effects of climatic changes on terrestrial ecosystems. The scope of the present paper is to address the most challenging questions of ecohydrology providing a review of some of the most recent results in this emerging field. Particular emphasis will be given to the interaction of climate with vegetation patterns, their formation and evolution with time. These aspects have significant implications for the sustainability of ecosystems, the maintenance of biodiversity as well as for a sustainable water use.

Title: Impacts of the Interannual Variability of Daily Flows on Plant Species Richness in the Low-Flow Channel Downstream from the Matawin Dam (Quebec, Canada)
Author: Ali A. Assani, Édith Gravel and Gisèle Milett
Abstract: The inversion-type regulated hydrologic regime is characterized by high interannual variability of daily streamflow downstream from dams. The goal of the study was to analyze the effects of such variability on species abundance in the low-flow channel downstream from the Matawin dam. Comparison of the number of species on three sand banks downstream from the dam in 2003 (dry year) and 2004 (wet year) revealed a significant decrease in the number of terrestrial species on all three banks in 2004, despite the fact that no change was observed in the grain-size distribution or chemical composition of sediments in these banks.

Title: Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of the Little Choctawhatchee RiveR
Author: Jonathan M. Miller and Paul M. Stewart *
Affiliation: Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Troy University, Troy, AL, 36082, USA
* Corresponding Author; E-Mail: mstewart@troy.edu
Abstract: Riverine dams not only alter the physical environment but affect water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments.  Nationwide, dam construction is on the decline, and there is a growing trend of dam removal.  The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR), a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River.  The stated function of the previously proposed reservoir was for water supply, but development was a controversial yet officially unstated issue.  While this permit application has been suspended, history shows that this or related projects are expected to arise in the future.  This study collected data on nutrient quality seasonally (four times) from 12 sites in the LCR watershed from October 2007 to June 2008 in order to determine pre-dam conditions and to compare these data to historical and regional information.  Historical and current nutrient concentrations were elevated throughout the watershed, in most cases above suggested criteria, and suggested that water quality of the river was and continues to be degraded, e.g., nutrient rich.  A future reservoir at recent levels of water quality will likely be highly eutrophic, and anthropogenic influences will further stress this ecosystem and its water quality as the urban region expands.

Title: Rock Gabion, Rock Armoring, and Culvert Treatments Contributing to and Reducing Erosion during Post-fire Flooding, Schultz Fire 2010, Arizona, USA
Authors: Daniel G. Neary 1, *, Karen A. Koestner 1 and Ann Youberg 2
Affiliation: 1 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001, USA
2 Arizona Geological Survey, 416 Congress Street, Suite 100, Tucson, Arizona 85701, USA
* Corresponding author; E-Mail: dneary@fs.fed.us
Abstract: The Schultz Fire burned 6,100 ha on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Peaks of the Coconino National Forest in north-central Arizona.  The fire burned between June 20th and 30th, 2010, across moderate to very steep ponderosa pine and mixed conifer watersheds. One of the Burned Area Emergency Response treatments on Coconino National Forest lands consisted of the placement of large rock rip-rap on targeted fill slopes of a high elevation road that carries a water pipeline supplying water to the city of Flagstaff, Arizona. Other Forest treatments consisted of culvert removal at 30 channel crossings on the Schultz Pass Road that transects the Schultz Fire at a lower elevation. On urbanized private lands below the Schultz Fire, no road culverts were initially removed or upgraded. A major, unarmored drainage ditch rated at a capacity of 14.2 m3 sec-1 was fitted with sixteen rock-filled wire cage gabions to reduce channel incision in unconsolidated debris fan sediments.  Rainfall beginning in mid-July after the wildfire produced a series of floods that caused substantial soil erosion, debris flows, and channel incision. The large rip-rap on the upper elevation Waterline road failed completely. The channel crossings where culverts were removed functioned satisfactorily and prevented addition of road fill and fill-breach surges to the stormflow. Road culverts in the urban area were grossly under capacity and were either buried or bypassed during post-fire floods, contributing to increases in the transport of sediments to lower elevations. The gabions in the drainage ditch functioned for a short time but were then bypassed, causing significant channel widening and transport of additional sediment. This paper takes a forensic look at these erosion control measures and discusses the reasons for failure or success. Recommendations are made for future use of these erosion control techniques.
Keywords: Gabions, culverts, rock armoring, erosion, wildfire

Title: Developing a Decision Support Tool for Landscape Planning and Management to Minimize Land and Water Degradation
Authors: Lulseged Tamene 1, *, Quang Bao Le 2 and Paul L.G. Vlek 3
1 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 158, Lilongwe, Malawi; E-Mail: LT.Desta@CGIAR.ORG
2 Natural and Social Science Interface (NSSI), Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), ETH Zurich, Universitaestrasse 22, CH-8092, Switzerland; E-Mail: quang.le@env.ethz.ch
3 University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany; E-Mail: p.vlek@uni-bonn.de
* Corresponding Author
Abstract: Land and water degradation due to on-site soil/nutrient loss and off-site sedimentation/pollution are serious environmental problems worldwide. Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. In this paper, we present a LAndscape Planning and MAnagement Tool (LAPMAT) developed to facilitate landscape planning and land management decision-making at the catchment scale. LAPMAT is a user-friendly and menu-oriented interactive graphic user interface intended to aid decision makers to identify the areas that are experiencing high rate of soil loss and evaluate the effects of alternative land use management practices on reducing soil loss. The interface guides the user through a series of menus that allow: 1) selecting model inputs, adjusting coefficients, and executing the model; 2) visualizing and identifying hotspots areas of erosion that require priority management intervention; 3) selecting and executing different land management/conservation measures targeting problem areas; 4) visualizing graphical and tabular results side-by-side and generate quantitative results for alternative scenarios; and 5) (re)-evaluating the respective impacts of management/conservation options applied in reducing sediment yield. The LAPMAT has been applied in an example catchment of northern Ethiopia using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) adjusted for sediment delivery ratio. The results showed average sediment yield rate of 65 t ha/yr, the majority of which comes from steep slope and gullied areas. Conservation measures targeted at high soil loss areas and gullies gave the maximum reduction in sediment yield. Since LAPMAT allows front-end users handle the selection of management/planning options and provide fast and responsive outputs, it can assist in effective multi-stakeholder negotiations over land-use planning where the minimization of land/water degradation is the ultimate goal. Next steps will integrate into the tool a variety of models for users to choose considering their specific conditions and data availability and enhance the model to help perform cost-benefit analysis of the different management measures.
Keywords: land and water degradation, landscape planning and management, decision support tool, RUSLE, Northern Ethiopia

Title: Comparison of Stream Invertebrate Response Models for Bioassessment Metrics: The Effects of Spatial Scale
Authors: Ian R. Waite, Jonathan G. Kennen, Jason T. May, Larry R. Brown, Thomas F. Cuffney, Kimberly A. Jones and James L. Orlando
Abstract: A total of 1058 macroinvertebrate sites were used either as model development sites (n=591) or as model validation sites (n=467). Sites met strict screening criteria and included sites within four contiguous ecoregions: North Central Appalachians (n=167), Ridge and Valley (n=152), Northern Highlands (n=139), and Northern Piedmont (n = 133) (Fig. 1, stars). Watershed disturbance predictive models were developed for the total data set and across the four contiguous ecoregions to test the impact of spatial scale (Full Region vs. individual Ecoregions) on model performance, as well as the effect of other landscape factors such as watershed size and elevation. Models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) and boosted regression tree (BRT) techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics and the results compared between methods. Across all regions, BRT models had higher R2 and lower RMSE and AIC values than MLR models for the same invertebrate metric. Comparing within a region but across invertebrate metrics, the average tolerance of taxa, RichTOL, consistently had the highest R2 for both MLR and BRT models among the four metrics for all the regions studied. Across the four invertebrate metrics, the final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g. population density, % urban or % manmade channels), a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., average December or maximum monthly runoff) and an environmental setting variable (e.g., riparian slope and elevation). Other common explanatory variables in the models were percent forest in the watershed or riparian zone. The Full Region models explained almost as much variance in the data as the individual ecoregion models. As a result, we suggest that large regional models should be attempted as a good preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural environmental setting variables is not too large.
Keywords: spatial scale; modeling; macroinvertebrates; watershed disturbance; land use; prediction; statistical assessment, boosted regression trees

Title: Exploring Rainfall Contribution to Storm Flow in a Small Forested Watershed with a Hydrological Model
Authors: Lee Sang Ho 1, Youn Ho Joong 2, Kim Donghyeob 3 and Im Sangjun 3, *
1 Korean Association of Soil and Water Conservation, 51-10, Cheongnyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-867, Korea
2 Korea Forest Research Institute, 57 Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-712, Korea
3 Department of Forest Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921, Korea
*Corresponding Author; E-Mail: junie@snu.ac.kr
Abstract: A TOPMODEL was employed to explore rainfall contribution to runoff generation in a 58.3-ha Myeongseong watershed in Korea.  Parameters of the model were estimated through the Monte Carlo simulation by comparing the observed and simulated runoff volume across 9 recorded storm events.  Parameter estimation efforts gave the model efficiency of 0.93 for the entire events.  Quick response flow, which was estimated from saturated overland flow in the model, comprised of 41.9~75.9 percent of total runoff for 9 storm events, while baseflow accounted for 41.7 percent of streamflow for all events.  No significant relationship between rainfall amount and quick response flow has found.  Variations in rainfall contribution related mainly to antecedent moisture condition and other hydrological properties of the watershed.
Keywords: rainfall contribution; TOPMODEL; Monte Carlo simulation; quick flow, groundwater flow

Title: Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Agricultural Bet Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management
Authors: Zeyuan Qiu; E-Mail: qiuz@njit.edu
Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two complimentary and competing objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds likes ones in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This presentation assesses the cost-effectiveness of the selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in Neshanic River Watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central Jersey. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include Cover Crop, Prescribed Grazing Livestock Access Control, Contour Farming, Nutrient Management, and Conservation Buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are Rain Garden, Road Ditch Retrofitting, and Detention Basin Retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness measures the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus achieved by the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reduction by these BMPs is based the simulated total pollutant load in the watershed and achievable pollutant reduction rate in literature. The total implementation cost includes the BMP installation and maintenance costs as well as the cost of outreach to the stakeholders in the region. The assessment results indicate the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are much more cost-effective than the BMPs for stormwater management. The current tendency of ignoring the difference between the BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management and promoting the BMPs for stormwater management over the BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control in suburban watersheds would be too costly to the society: exhausting the limited funding sources for watershed management and harming the improvements in water quality.

Title: Consequences of Increased Summer Stream Flow on Turtle Nesting Success in Minnesota Rivers
Authors: C. Lenhart, J. Nieber, B. Suppes and J. Naber
Afilliation: University of Minnesota, Dept. of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, Capitol Region Watershed District, and Emmons and Olivier Resources, Inc., Minnesota, USA
Abstract: There have been significant increases in stream flow in many upper Midwestern rivers since 1980.  Traditionally, increased stream flow below the 50th percentile has been considered to have mostly positive ecological effects.  However increased summer flows may negatively impact aquatic biota. The smooth softshell (A. mutica) and wood turtle (G. insculpta), two rare species are threatened by alteration of stream flow regime, which impacts their ability to nest on sandbars.   Recent research shows a prolonged duration of high flows during the nesting season of June and July potentially reducing nesting opportunity.   We assessed hydrologic change using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration software and changes to stream geomorphology via sandbar surveys, soil analysis and historic aerial photos in GIS on five rivers: the Cannon, Minnesota, Root, Kettle and St. Louis.   Using USGS stream gauge data and aerial photos, we developed a river stage-sandbar area relationship to determine the effect of prolonged high flow duration on nesting success.  Since these turtle species’ eggs cannot survive > 2 days of submergence, we were able to identify the frequency of suitable nesting conditions in June and July over the 1940-2009 time period.  Suitable water levels have declined since the 1940s in the agricultural watersheds of southern Minnesota (the Root, Cannon and Minnesota Rivers) meaning that turtle hatchlings are likely delayed and have lower survival rates.  There was no significant change in the northern forested rivers (the Kettle and St. Louis) stream flow and sandbar availability during the nesting season. This study demonstrates how increased low and mean flows can have ecological impacts as well as increased high flows. Widespread hydrologic alteration may result in reduced reproductive success of turtles in effected rivers.  Enhanced management of the riparian corridor and maintenance of longitudinal connectivity could help to mitigate ecological impacts of hydrologic change.

Title: Reduction of Peak Stormwater Flow Following Raingarden Installations and Resulting Impact on Stream Macroinvertebrate Community
Author: Paul Steen
Affiliation: Huron River Watershed Council, 1100 N. Main Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA; E-Mail: psteen@hrwc.org; Tel.: +1-734-769-5123
Abstract: Millers Creek is a steep yet short creek flowing through a highly impervious suburban neighborhood. After storms, the runoff enters the creek very quickly, turning the normal trickle of water into a torrent, which makes it virtually impossible for fish and insects to live in the creek.  A series of water retention best management practices were installed into the creek's upper watershed in order to slow down the rush of stormwater and lessen the peak flows of the system.  Modeling results indicate that the amount of rain delivered to the creek after a one inch rain event decreased by approximately 30%. Flow and macroinvertebrate monitoring was performed prior to and after the installation.  The monitoring showed peak flow reduction between 29 and 69%, depending on the size of the storm.  Macroinvertebrate communities appear to be improving, though this determination is difficult to make until more time has passed.

Title: Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept in Ecosystem Management: Hula Wetland, Israel
Author: Tamar Dayan; E-Mail: DayanT@tauex.tau.ac.il
Abstract: Wetland ecosystem management involves multiple stakeholders. Here we apply the ecosystem services (ES) concept to the Hula Wetland's stakeholders' analysis. The Hula is located in the Sea of Galilee's watershed. Its natural areas are managed differently and provide different ES. We observe a lack of coordination between the managing organizations that might lead to problematic conservation issues of the wetland's natural resources. We compare the Hula to the Camargue Wetland. Both have similarities, in different institutional contexts. Implementing at the Hula, a similar platform as the Camargue Regional Park, could improve its management and lead to better coordination and complementarity. We show that the ES concept helps provide answers to conservation questions in the management of a wetland.

Title: Urban Watershed Management in Africa in Times of Climate Change:  The Importance of Public Engagement
Authors: Patricia E. Perkins, Mary Galvin, Elias Munguambe and Romanus Opiyo
Affiliations: 1 York University, Toronto, Canada; Umphilo waManzi (Water is Life), Durban, South Africa
2 Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique; and University of Nairobi, Kenya
Abstract: In African cities, infrastructure limitations and poverty exacerbate the effects of extreme weather events caused by climate change, and complicate water management.  At the same time, public involvement and education is vital to meeting these challenges.   This paper discusses water management issues related to watershed governance and climate change in Durban, South Africa; Maputo, Mozambique; and Nairobi, Kenya.   It reports on the results of a recent international project involving academic and non-governmental organization partners which explored ways of bringing local people into dialogue with government officials to share knowledge and strategies for managing water in a socially, politically and ecologically sustainable way.  Details on the water challenges in each city, and insights from each city’s experience, are discussed and compared.

Last update: 1 February 2013

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