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Water 2012, 4(4), 759-769; doi:10.3390/w4040759
Article

The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan

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Received: 9 August 2012; in revised form: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
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Abstract: From the viewpoint of combating global warming in Japan, measures to reduce emissions from the activities involved in daily life have been accelerated in concurrence with the efforts made in the industrial sector to save energy. As one such measure, the reduction of energy consumption in waterworks and sewer systems by reducing the volume of water used in the housing sector is gaining attention; measures for the conversion of water saving into CO2 reduction credit in the domestic credit system are also being examined. To address the credit development for CO2 reduction by water saving, it was necessary to determine the CO2 emission factor for water. Hence, we calculated the CO2 emission factor of water use in Japan and determined the value to be 0.376 kg CO2/m3 which applied the generating end electricity value. In addition, since electricity contributes to 90% of the energy consumption of the waterworks and sewer systems of Japan and since the emission factor for electricity changes with the power source composition ratio, the CO2 emission factor for water also needs to be updated to match the emission factor for electricity. We therefore developed a calculation equation for updating this emission factor.
Keywords: global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; Japan global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; Japan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimizu, Y.; Dejima, S.; Toyosada, K. The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan. Water 2012, 4, 759-769.

AMA Style

Shimizu Y, Dejima S, Toyosada K. The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan. Water. 2012; 4(4):759-769.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimizu, Yasutoshi; Dejima, Satoshi; Toyosada, Kanako. 2012. "The CO2 Emission Factor of Water in Japan." Water 4, no. 4: 759-769.


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