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Genes, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Neo-sex chromosomes derive from the fusion of ancient sex chromosomes with autosomes and usually [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Etiology of Bladder Cancer
Genes 2017, 8(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110339
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
According to data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, GLOBOCAN, and the World Health Organization Mortality), bladder is among the top ten body locations of cancer globally, with the highest incidence
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According to data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, GLOBOCAN, and the World Health Organization Mortality), bladder is among the top ten body locations of cancer globally, with the highest incidence rates reported in Southern and Western Europe, North America, Northern Africa and Western Asia. Males (M) are more vulnerable to this disease than females (F), despite ample frequency variations in different countries, with a M:F ratio of 4.1:1 for incidence and 3.6:1 for mortality, worldwide. For a long time, bladder cancer was genetically classified through mutations of two genes, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3, for low-grade, non-invasive papillary tumors) and tumor protein P53 (TP53, for high-grade, muscle-invasive tumors). However, more recently scientists have shown that this disease is far more complex, since genes directly involved are more than 150; so far, it has been described that altered gene expression (up- or down-regulation) may be present for up to 500 coding sequences in low-grade and up to 2300 in high-grade tumors. Non-coding RNAs are essential to explain, at least partially, this ample dysregulation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about long and short non-coding RNAs that have been linked to bladder cancer etiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Connections between Transcription Downstream of Genes and cis-SAGe Chimeric RNA
Genes 2017, 8(11), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110338
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
cis-Splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) is being recognized as one way to produce chimeric fusion RNAs. However, its detail mechanism is not clear. Recent study revealed induction of transcriptions downstream of genes (DoGs) under osmotic stress. Here, we investigated the influence of osmotic
[...] Read more.
cis-Splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) is being recognized as one way to produce chimeric fusion RNAs. However, its detail mechanism is not clear. Recent study revealed induction of transcriptions downstream of genes (DoGs) under osmotic stress. Here, we investigated the influence of osmotic stress on cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs and their connection to DoGs. We found, the absence of induction of at least some cis-SAGe fusions and/or their corresponding DoGs at early time point(s). In fact, these DoGs and their cis-SAGe fusions are inversely correlated. This negative correlation was changed to positive at a later time point. These results suggest a direct competition between the two categories of transcripts when total pool of readthrough transcripts is limited at an early time point. At a later time point, DoGs and corresponding cis-SAGe fusions are both induced, indicating that total readthrough transcripts become more abundant. Finally, we observed overall enhancement of cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs in KCl-treated samples by RNA-Seq analysis. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Obscure World of Integrative and Mobilizable Elements, Highly Widespread Elements that Pirate Bacterial Conjugative Systems
Genes 2017, 8(11), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110337
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Conjugation is a key mechanism of bacterial evolution that involves mobile genetic elements. Recent findings indicated that the main actors of conjugative transfer are not the well-known conjugative or mobilizable plasmids but are the integrated elements. This paper reviews current knowledge on “integrative
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Conjugation is a key mechanism of bacterial evolution that involves mobile genetic elements. Recent findings indicated that the main actors of conjugative transfer are not the well-known conjugative or mobilizable plasmids but are the integrated elements. This paper reviews current knowledge on “integrative and mobilizable elements” (IMEs) that have recently been shown to be highly diverse and highly widespread but are still rarely described. IMEs encode their own excision and integration and use the conjugation machinery of unrelated co-resident conjugative element for their own transfer. Recent studies revealed a much more complex and much more diverse lifecycle than initially thought. Besides their main transmission as integrated elements, IMEs probably use plasmid-like strategies to ensure their maintenance after excision. Their interaction with conjugative elements reveals not only harmless hitchhikers but also hunters that use conjugative elements as target for their integration or harmful parasites that subvert the conjugative apparatus of incoming elements to invade cells that harbor them. IMEs carry genes conferring various functions, such as resistance to antibiotics, that can enhance the fitness of their hosts and that contribute to their maintenance in bacterial populations. Taken as a whole, IMEs are probably major contributors to bacterial evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horizontal Gene Transfer)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Bifidobacterium Species Using groEL Gene on the Basis of Illumina MiSeq High-Throughput Sequencing
Genes 2017, 8(11), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110336
Received: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
The next-generation high-throughput sequencing techniques have introduced a new way to assess the gut’s microbial diversity on the basis of 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota analysis. However, the precise appraisal of the biodiversity of Bifidobacterium species within the gut remains a challenging task because
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The next-generation high-throughput sequencing techniques have introduced a new way to assess the gut’s microbial diversity on the basis of 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota analysis. However, the precise appraisal of the biodiversity of Bifidobacterium species within the gut remains a challenging task because of the limited resolving power of the 16S rRNA gene in different species. The groEL gene, a protein-coding gene, evolves quickly and thus is useful for differentiating bifidobacteria. Here, we designed a Bifidobacterium-specific primer pair which targets a hypervariable sequence region within the groEL gene that is suitable for precise taxonomic identification and detection of all recognized species of the genus Bifidobacterium so far. The results showed that the novel designed primer set can specifically differentiate Bifidobacterium species from non-bifidobacteria, and as low as 104 cells of Bifidobacterium species can be detected using the novel designed primer set on the basis of Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. We also developed a novel protocol to assess the diversity of Bifidobacterium species in both human and rat feces through high-throughput sequencing technologies using groEL gene as a discriminative marker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Expression Patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus Catalase Genes during Developmental Stages and under Heat Stress
Genes 2017, 8(11), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110335
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Catalases are ubiquitous hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes. They participate in fungal growth and development, such as mycelial growth and cellular differentiation, and in protecting fungi from oxidative damage under stressful conditions. To investigate the potential functions of catalases in Pleurotus ostreatus, we obtained
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Catalases are ubiquitous hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes. They participate in fungal growth and development, such as mycelial growth and cellular differentiation, and in protecting fungi from oxidative damage under stressful conditions. To investigate the potential functions of catalases in Pleurotus ostreatus, we obtained two catalase genes from a draft genome sequence of P. ostreatus, and cloned and characterized them (Po-cat1 and Po-cat2). Po-cat1 (group II) and Po-cat2 (group III) encoded putative peptides of 745 and 528 amino acids, respectively. Furthermore, the gene structures were variant between Po-cat1 and Po-cat2. Further research revealed that these two catalase genes have divergent expression patterns during different developmental stages. Po-cat1/Po-cat1 was at a barely detectable level in mycelia, accumulated gradually during reproductive growth, and was maximal in separated spores. But no catalase activity of Po-cat1 was detected by native-PAGE during any part of the developmental stages. In contrast, high Po-cat2/Po-cat2 expression and Po-cat2 activity found in mycelia were gradually lost during reproductive growth, and at a minimal level in separated spores. In addition, these two genes responded differentially under 32 °C and 40 °C heat stresses. Po-cat1 was up-regulated under both temperature conditions, while Po-cat2 was up-regulated at 32 °C but down-regulated at 40 °C. The accumulation of catalase proteins correlated with gene expression. These results indicate that the two divergent catalases in P. ostreatus may play different roles during development and under heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Homoeologous Recombination of the V1r1-V1r2 Gene Cluster of Pheromone Receptors in an Allotetraploid Lineage of Teleosts
Genes 2017, 8(11), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110334
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
In contrast to other olfactory receptor families that exhibit frequent lineage-specific expansions, the vomeronasal type 1 receptor (V1R) family exhibits a canonical six-member repertoire in teleosts. V1r1 and V1r2 are present in no more than one copy in all examined teleosts, including salmons,
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In contrast to other olfactory receptor families that exhibit frequent lineage-specific expansions, the vomeronasal type 1 receptor (V1R) family exhibits a canonical six-member repertoire in teleosts. V1r1 and V1r2 are present in no more than one copy in all examined teleosts, including salmons, which are ancient polyploids, implying strict evolutionary constraints. However, recent polyploids have not been examined. Here, we identified a young allotetraploid lineage of weatherfishes and investigated their V1r1-V1r2 cluster. We found a novel pattern that the parental V1r1-V1r2 clusters had recombined in the tetraploid genome and that the recombinant was nearly fixed in the tetraploid population. Subsequent analyses suggested strong selective pressure, for both a new combination of paralogs and homogeneity among gene duplicates, acting on the V1r1-V1r2 pair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Population and Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Differentially Expressed tRNA-Derived Small RNAs Co-Sediment Primarily with Non-Polysomal Fractions in Drosophila
Genes 2017, 8(11), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110333
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent studies point to the existence of poorly characterized small regulatory RNAs generated from mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs. To explore the subcellular location of tRNA-derived small RNAs, 0–1 and 7–8 h Drosophila embryos were fractionated on sucrose density gradients. Analysis of 12,553,921 deep-sequencing
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Recent studies point to the existence of poorly characterized small regulatory RNAs generated from mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs. To explore the subcellular location of tRNA-derived small RNAs, 0–1 and 7–8 h Drosophila embryos were fractionated on sucrose density gradients. Analysis of 12,553,921 deep-sequencing reads from unfractionated and fractionated Drosophila embryos has revealed that tRFs, which are detected mainly from the 5’ends of tRNAs, co-sediment with the non-polysomal fractions. Interestingly, the expression levels of a subset of tRFs change temporally following the maternal-to-zygotic transition in embryos. We detected non-polysomal association of tRFs in S2 cells as well. Differential tRF expression pattern points to developmental significance at the organismal level. These results suggest that tRFs are associated primarily with the non-polysomal complexes in Drosophila embryos and S2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Gene-Based Pathogen Detection: Can We Use qPCR to Predict the Outcome of Diagnostic Metagenomics?
Genes 2017, 8(11), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110332
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
In microbial food safety, molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bacterial isolates can potentially be replaced by diagnostic shotgun metagenomics. However, the methods for pre-analytical sample preparation are often optimized for qPCR, and do not necessarily perform
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In microbial food safety, molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bacterial isolates can potentially be replaced by diagnostic shotgun metagenomics. However, the methods for pre-analytical sample preparation are often optimized for qPCR, and do not necessarily perform equally well for qPCR and sequencing. The present study investigates, through screening of methods, whether qPCR can be used as an indicator for the optimization of sample preparation for NGS-based shotgun metagenomics with a diagnostic focus. This was used on human fecal samples spiked with 103 or 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/g Campylobacter jejuni, as well as porcine fecal samples spiked with 103 or 106 CFU/g Salmonella typhimurium. DNA was extracted from the samples using variations of two widely used kits. The following quality parameters were measured: DNA concentration, qPCR, DNA fragmentation during library preparation, amount of DNA available for sequencing, amount of sequencing data, distribution of data between samples in a batch, and data insert size; none showed any correlation with the target ratio of the spiking organism detected in sequencing data. Surprisingly, diagnostic metagenomics can have better detection sensitivity than qPCR for samples spiked with 103 CFU/g C. jejuni. The study also showed that qPCR and sequencing results may be different due to inhibition in one of the methods. In conclusion, qPCR cannot uncritically be used as an indicator for the optimization of sample preparation for diagnostic metagenomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens)
Open AccessArticle Evolutionarily Distant Streptophyta Respond Differently to Genotoxic Stress
Genes 2017, 8(11), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110331
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Research in algae usually focuses on the description and characterization of morpho—and phenotype as a result of adaptation to a particular habitat and its conditions. To better understand the evolution of lineages we characterized responses of filamentous streptophyte green algae of the genera
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Research in algae usually focuses on the description and characterization of morpho—and phenotype as a result of adaptation to a particular habitat and its conditions. To better understand the evolution of lineages we characterized responses of filamentous streptophyte green algae of the genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema, and of a land plant—the moss Physcomitrella patens—to genotoxic stress that might be relevant to their environment. We studied the induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) elicited by the radiomimetic drug bleomycin, DNA single strand breaks (SSB) as consequence of base modification by the alkylation agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and of ultra violet (UV)-induced photo-dimers, because the mode of action of these three genotoxic agents is well understood. We show that the Klebsormidium and Physcomitrella are similarly sensitive to introduced DNA lesions and have similar rates of DSBs repair. In contrast, less DNA damage and higher repair rate of DSBs was detected in Zygnema, suggesting different mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity in response to genotoxic stress. Nevertheless, contrary to fewer detected lesions is Zygnema more sensitive to genotoxic treatment than Klebsormidium and Physcomitrella Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage Responses in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle The HMGA1 Pseudogene 7 Induces miR-483 and miR-675 Upregulation by Activating Egr1 through a ceRNA Mechanism
Genes 2017, 8(11), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110330
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Several studies have established that pseudogene mRNAs can work as competing endogenous RNAs and, when deregulated, play a key role in the onset of human neoplasias. Recently, we have isolated two HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. These pseudogenes have a critical role
[...] Read more.
Several studies have established that pseudogene mRNAs can work as competing endogenous RNAs and, when deregulated, play a key role in the onset of human neoplasias. Recently, we have isolated two HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. These pseudogenes have a critical role in cancer progression, acting as micro RNA (miRNA) sponges for HMGA1 and other cancer-related genes. HMGA1 pseudogenes were found overexpressed in several human carcinomas, and their expression levels positively correlate with an advanced cancer stage and a poor prognosis. In order to investigate the molecular alterations following HMGA1 pseudogene 7 overexpression, we carried out miRNA sequencing analysis on HMGA1P7 overexpressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Intriguingly, the most upregulated miRNAs were miR-483 and miR-675 that have been described as key regulators in cancer progression. Here, we report that HMGA1P7 upregulates miR-483 and miR-675 through a competing endogenous RNA mechanism with Egr1, a transcriptional factor that positively regulates miR-483 and miR-675 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats
Genes 2017, 8(11), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110329
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL). While there are cases where
[...] Read more.
It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL). While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of the Caprine Keratin-Associated Protein 20-2 (KAP20-2) Gene and Its Effect on Cashmere Traits
Genes 2017, 8(11), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110328
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
The gene encoding the high glycine/tyrosine keratin-associated protein 20-2 (KAP20-2) gene has been described in humans, but has not been identified in any livestock species. A search for similar sequences in the caprine genome using the human KAP20-2 gene (KRTAP20-2) revealed
[...] Read more.
The gene encoding the high glycine/tyrosine keratin-associated protein 20-2 (KAP20-2) gene has been described in humans, but has not been identified in any livestock species. A search for similar sequences in the caprine genome using the human KAP20-2 gene (KRTAP20-2) revealed a homologous sequence on chromosome 1. Three different banding patterns representing distinct sequences (AC) in Longdong cashmere goats were identified using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. These sequences shared high sequence similarity with the human and mouse KRTAP20-2 sequences, suggesting that AC are caprine variants of the human and mouse genes. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, and three of them were non-synonymous. KRTAP20-2 was found to be expressed in secondary hair follicles, but not in heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, or longissimus dorsi muscle. The presence of A was associated with increased cashmere fibre weight, while the presence of B was associated with a decrease in cashmere fibre weight and curly fibre length. Goats with genotype AA had a higher cashmere fibre weight and a higher curly fibre length than those with genotypes AB or BB. These results indicate that caprine KRTAP20-2 variation may have value as a genetic marker for improving cashmere fibre weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle New Insights into Phasmatodea Chromosomes
Genes 2017, 8(11), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110327
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Currently, approximately 3000 species of stick insects are known; however, chromosome numbers, which range between 21 and 88, are known for only a few of these insects. Also, centromere banding staining (C-banding) patterns were described for fewer than 10 species, and fluorescence in
[...] Read more.
Currently, approximately 3000 species of stick insects are known; however, chromosome numbers, which range between 21 and 88, are known for only a few of these insects. Also, centromere banding staining (C-banding) patterns were described for fewer than 10 species, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied exclusively in two Leptynia species. Interestingly, 10–25% of stick insects (Phasmatodea) are obligatory or facultative parthenogenetic. As clonal and/or bisexual reproduction can affect chromosomal evolution, stick insect karyotypes need to be studied more intensely. Chromosome preparation from embryos of five Phasmatodea species (Medauroidea extradentata, Sungaya inexpectata, Sipyloidea sipylus, Phaenopharos khaoyaiensis, and Peruphasma schultei) from four families were studied here by C-banding and FISH applying ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) and telomeric repeat probes. For three species, data on chromosome numbers and structure were obtained here for the first time, i.e., S. inexpectata, P. khaoyaiensis, and P. schultei. Large C-positive regions enriched with rDNA were identified in all five studied, distantly related species. Some of these C-positive blocks were enriched for telomeric repeats, as well. Chromosomal evolution of stick insects is characterized by variations in chromosome numbers as well as transposition and amplification of repetitive DNA sequences. Here, the first steps were made towards identification of individual chromosomes in Phasmatodea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle Taxonomic Classification for Living Organisms Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Genes 2017, 8(11), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110326
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about evolutionary history. Compared to the estimated number of organisms that nature harbors, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of to which specific classes they belong. The classification of living
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Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about evolutionary history. Compared to the estimated number of organisms that nature harbors, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of to which specific classes they belong. The classification of living organisms can be done in many machine learning techniques. However, in this study, this is performed using convolutional neural networks. Moreover, a DNA encoding technique is incorporated in the algorithm to increase performance and avoid misclassifications. The algorithm proposed outperformed the state of the art algorithms in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, which illustrates a high potential for using it in many other applications in genome analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Bailinggu (Pleurotus tuoliensis) for Crossbreeding
Genes 2017, 8(11), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8110325
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Identification of monokaryons and their mating types and discrimination of hybrid offspring are key steps for the crossbreeding of Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu). However, conventional crossbreeding methods are troublesome and time consuming. Using RNA-seq technology, we developed new expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR)
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Identification of monokaryons and their mating types and discrimination of hybrid offspring are key steps for the crossbreeding of Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu). However, conventional crossbreeding methods are troublesome and time consuming. Using RNA-seq technology, we developed new expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for Bailinggu to easily and rapidly identify monokaryons and their mating types, genetic diversity and hybrid offspring. We identified 1110 potential EST-based SSR loci from a newly-sequenced Bailinggu transcriptome and then randomly selected 100 EST-SSRs for further validation. Results showed that 39, 43 and 34 novel EST-SSR markers successfully identified monokaryons from their parent dikaryons, differentiated two different mating types and discriminated F1 and F2 hybrid offspring, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 86 alleles were detected in 37 monokaryons using 18 highly informative EST-SSRs. The observed number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven. Cluster analysis revealed that these monokaryons have a relatively high level of genetic diversity. Transfer rates of the EST-SSRs in the monokaryons of closely-related species Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae and Pleurotus ostreatus were 72% and 64%, respectively. Therefore, our study provides new SSR markers and an efficient method to enhance the crossbreeding of Bailinggu and closely-related species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
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