Next Article in Journal
The Small and the Dead: A Review of Ancient DNA Studies Analysing Micromammal Species
Previous Article in Journal
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes and Congenital Cataract: “Double-Gene” Mutations Mimicking a Syndromic Diabetes Presentation
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Genes 2017, 8(11), 310; doi:10.3390/genes8110310

Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies

1
Center for Applications in Biotechnology, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA
2
Department of Biology, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA
3
ATCC-Center for Translational Microbiology, Institute for Life Science Entrepreneurship, Union, NJ 07083, USA
4
Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Division of Paleopathology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
5
Center for Anthropological, Paleopathological and Historical Studies of the Sardinian and Mediterranean Populations, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
6
Laboratory of Molecular Archaeo-Anthropology/Ancient DNA, School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
7
Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan 00932, Puerto Rico
Mailing Address: ATCC-Center for Translational Microbiology, 1075 Morris Avenue, STEM Bldg., Room 5-19, Union, NJ 07083, USA.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thierry Wirth
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2623 KB, uploaded 7 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrate-active enzymes; gut microbiome; mummies; resistome carbohydrate-active enzymes; gut microbiome; mummies; resistome
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Santiago-Rodriguez, T.M.; Fornaciari, G.; Luciani, S.; Toranzos, G.A.; Marota, I.; Giuffra, V.; Cano, R.J. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies. Genes 2017, 8, 310.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top