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Genes 2017, 8(11), 327; doi:10.3390/genes8110327

New Insights into Phasmatodea Chromosomes

1
Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, D-07747 Jena, Germany
2
Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
4
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Abstract

Currently, approximately 3000 species of stick insects are known; however, chromosome numbers, which range between 21 and 88, are known for only a few of these insects. Also, centromere banding staining (C-banding) patterns were described for fewer than 10 species, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied exclusively in two Leptynia species. Interestingly, 10–25% of stick insects (Phasmatodea) are obligatory or facultative parthenogenetic. As clonal and/or bisexual reproduction can affect chromosomal evolution, stick insect karyotypes need to be studied more intensely. Chromosome preparation from embryos of five Phasmatodea species (Medauroidea extradentata, Sungaya inexpectata, Sipyloidea sipylus, Phaenopharos khaoyaiensis, and Peruphasma schultei) from four families were studied here by C-banding and FISH applying ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) and telomeric repeat probes. For three species, data on chromosome numbers and structure were obtained here for the first time, i.e., S. inexpectata, P. khaoyaiensis, and P. schultei. Large C-positive regions enriched with rDNA were identified in all five studied, distantly related species. Some of these C-positive blocks were enriched for telomeric repeats, as well. Chromosomal evolution of stick insects is characterized by variations in chromosome numbers as well as transposition and amplification of repetitive DNA sequences. Here, the first steps were made towards identification of individual chromosomes in Phasmatodea. View Full-Text
Keywords: stick insects; Phasmatodea; C-banding; fluorescence in situ hybridization; ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid; telomeric repeats; interstitial telomeric sequences stick insects; Phasmatodea; C-banding; fluorescence in situ hybridization; ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid; telomeric repeats; interstitial telomeric sequences
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liehr, T.; Buleu, O.; Karamysheva, T.; Bugrov, A.; Rubtsov, N. New Insights into Phasmatodea Chromosomes. Genes 2017, 8, 327.

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