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Genes 2017, 8(11), 311; doi:10.3390/genes8110311

Amphibian and Avian Karyotype Evolution: Insights from Lampbrush Chromosome Studies

Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 199034, Russia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Abstract

Amphibian and bird karyotypes typically have a complex organization, which makes them difficult for standard cytogenetic analysis. That is, amphibian chromosomes are generally large, enriched with repetitive elements, and characterized by the absence of informative banding patterns. The majority of avian karyotypes comprise a small number of relatively large macrochromosomes and numerous tiny morphologically undistinguishable microchromosomes. A good progress in investigation of amphibian and avian chromosome evolution became possible with the usage of giant lampbrush chromosomes typical for growing oocytes. Due to the giant size, peculiarities of organization and enrichment with cytological markers, lampbrush chromosomes can serve as an opportune model for comprehensive high-resolution cytogenetic and cytological investigations. Here, we review the main findings on chromosome evolution in amphibians and birds that were obtained using lampbrush chromosomes. In particular, we discuss the data on evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements, accumulation of polymorphisms, evolution of sex chromosomes as well as chromosomal changes during clonal reproduction of interspecies hybrids. View Full-Text
Keywords: lampbrush chromosomes; chromosomal evolution; amphibians; birds; karyotype; sex chromosomes lampbrush chromosomes; chromosomal evolution; amphibians; birds; karyotype; sex chromosomes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zlotina, A.; Dedukh, D.; Krasikova, A. Amphibian and Avian Karyotype Evolution: Insights from Lampbrush Chromosome Studies. Genes 2017, 8, 311.

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