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Genes, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story In the Roman-Christian municipality of Kellis (ca. 50–450 AD), within the remote southwest Egyptian [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Organ-on-Chip Technology: Current State and Future Developments
Genes 2017, 8(10), 266; doi:10.3390/genes8100266
Received: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
In the early days of pharmacy, the development of new drugs was frequently achieved by restless chemists who worked solitarily, day by day for years [...]
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue From the Lab-on-a-Chip to the Organ-on-a-Chip)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin
Genes 2017, 8(10), 237; doi:10.3390/genes8100237
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established
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The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC) methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less), and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples), and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2) as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15) up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS method for final implementation in forensic genetic laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Neglected Areas of Ancient DNA Research)
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Open AccessCommunication Development of Genome-Wide SSR Markers from Angelica gigas Nakai Using Next Generation Sequencing
Genes 2017, 8(10), 238; doi:10.3390/genes8100238
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal herb, widely utilized in Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan, and China. Although it is a vital medicinal herb, the lack of sequencing data and efficient molecular markers has limited the application of a genetic approach
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Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal herb, widely utilized in Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan, and China. Although it is a vital medicinal herb, the lack of sequencing data and efficient molecular markers has limited the application of a genetic approach for horticultural improvements. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are universally accepted molecular markers for population structure study. In this study, we found over 130,000 SSRs, ranging from di- to deca-nucleotide motifs, using the genome sequence of Manchu variety (MV) of A. gigas, derived from next generation sequencing (NGS). From the putative SSR regions identified, a total of 16,496 primer sets were successfully designed. Among them, we selected 848 SSR markers that showed polymorphism from in silico analysis and contained tri- to hexa-nucleotide motifs. We tested 36 SSR primer sets for polymorphism in 16 A. gigas accessions. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.69; the average observed heterozygosity (HO) values, and the expected heterozygosity (HE) values were 0.53 and 0.73, respectively. These newly developed SSR markers would be useful tools for molecular genetics, genotype identification, genetic mapping, molecular breeding, and studying species relationships of the Angelica genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Open AccessArticle Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats
Genes 2017, 8(10), 239; doi:10.3390/genes8100239
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing
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Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))—the same as metformin alone. Particularly, results of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) showed that combining HCE + metformin dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compared to metformin treatment alone. Both fecal and serum endotoxin, as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were significantly ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition, causing the alteration of bacterial metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. H. cordata, together with metformin, exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin; the corresponding mechanisms are associated with alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia, Akkermansia, and Gram-negative bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Open AccessArticle Host-Induced Gene Silencing of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Pathogenicity Genes Mediated by the Brome Mosaic Virus
Genes 2017, 8(10), 241; doi:10.3390/genes8100241
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating plant pathogen, which has a detrimental impact on rice production worldwide. Despite its agronomical importance, some newly-emerging pathotypes often overcome race-specific disease resistance rapidly. It is thus desirable to develop a novel strategy for the long-lasting resistance of
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Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating plant pathogen, which has a detrimental impact on rice production worldwide. Despite its agronomical importance, some newly-emerging pathotypes often overcome race-specific disease resistance rapidly. It is thus desirable to develop a novel strategy for the long-lasting resistance of rice plants to ever-changing fungal pathogens. Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-induced RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a useful tool to study host-resistance genes for rice blast protection. Planta-generated silencing of targeted genes inside biotrophic pathogens can be achieved by expression of M. oryzae-derived gene fragments in the BMV-mediated gene silencing system, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). In this study, the effectiveness of BMV-mediated HIGS in M. oryzae was examined by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, MoABC1, MoMAC1 and MoPMK1. Systemic generation of fungal gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules induced by inoculation of BMV viral vectors inhibited disease development and reduced the transcription of targeted fungal genes after subsequent M. oryzae inoculation. Combined introduction of fungal gene sequences in sense and antisense orientation mediated by the BMV silencing vectors significantly enhanced the efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi, implying that these fungal genes played crucial roles in pathogenicity. Collectively, our results indicated that BMV-HIGS system was a great strategy for protecting host plants against the invasion of pathogenic fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Textile Hemp vs. Salinity: Insights from a Targeted Gene Expression Analysis
Genes 2017, 8(10), 242; doi:10.3390/genes8100242
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic
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Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic and woody fibers for industry. In this work, the response to salinity (200 mM NaCl) of a fiber variety of hemp (Santhica 27) was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. The responses of plantlets aged 15 days were analyzed by microscopy and by measuring the changes in expression of cell wall-related genes, as well as in the general response to exogenous constraints. The results presented here show that a different response is present in the hemp hypocotyls and leaves. In the leaves, genes coding for heat shock proteins were significantly upregulated, together with a phytohormone-related transcript (ethylene-responsive factor 1 ERF1) and genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis (cellulose synthase CesA4, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins FLA10 and FLA8). Moreover, a tendency towards upregulation was also observed in the leaves for genes involved in lignification (4CL, CAD, PAL); a finding that suggests growth arrest. In the hypocotyl, the genes involved in lignification did not show changes in expression, while a gene related to expansion (expansin EXPA8), as well as transcripts coding for calcium-dependent lipid-binding family proteins (CALB), were upregulated. Microscopic analyses on the hypocotyl cross sections revealed changes in the vascular tissues of salt-exposed plantlets, where the lumen of xylem vessels was reduced. The gene expression results show that a different response is present in the hemp hypocotyls and leaves. The data presented contribute to our understanding of the regulatory gene network in response to salinity in different tissues of an important fiber crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Association between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Cancer
Genes 2017, 8(10), 243; doi:10.3390/genes8100243
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. An ALS drug, Riluzole, has been shown to induce two different anticancer effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In light of this finding, we explore the relationship between ALS and cancer, especially for HCC, from
[...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. An ALS drug, Riluzole, has been shown to induce two different anticancer effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In light of this finding, we explore the relationship between ALS and cancer, especially for HCC, from the molecular biological viewpoint. We establish biomarkers that can discriminate between ALS patients and healthy controls. A principal component analysis (PCA) based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) is used to find gene biomarkers of ALS based on microarray gene expression data. Based on this method, 101 probes were selected as biomarkers for ALS with 95% high accuracy to discriminate between ALS patients and controls. Most of the genes corresponding to these probes are shown to be related to various cancers. These findings might provide a new insight for developing new therapeutic options or drugs for both ALS and cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle BARHL1 Is Downregulated in Alzheimer’s Disease and May Regulate Cognitive Functions through ESR1 and Multiple Pathways
Genes 2017, 8(10), 245; doi:10.3390/genes8100245
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
The Transcription factor BarH like homeobox 1 (BARHL1) is overexpressed in medulloblastoma and plays a role in neurogenesis. However, much about the BARHL1 regulatory networks and their functions in neurodegenerative and neoplastic disorders is not yet known. In this study, using a tissue
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The Transcription factor BarH like homeobox 1 (BARHL1) is overexpressed in medulloblastoma and plays a role in neurogenesis. However, much about the BARHL1 regulatory networks and their functions in neurodegenerative and neoplastic disorders is not yet known. In this study, using a tissue microarray (TMA), we report for the first time that BARHL1 is downregulated in hormone-negative breast cancers and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, using an integrative bioinformatics approach and mining knockout mouse data, we show that: (i) BARHL1 and Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) may constitute a network that regulates Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3)- and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-mediated neurogenesis and neural survival; (ii) this is probably linked to AD pathways affecting aberrant post-translational modifications including SUMOylation and ubiquitination; (iii) the BARHL1-ESR1 network possibly regulates β-amyloid metabolism and memory; and (iv) hsa-mir-18a, having common key targets in the BARHL1-ESR1 network and AD pathway, may modulate neuron death, reduce β-amyloid processing and might also be involved in hearing and cognitive decline associated with AD. We have also hypothesized why estrogen replacement therapy improves AD condition. In addition, we have provided a feasible new mechanism to explain the abnormal function of mossy fibers and cerebellar granule cells related to memory and cognitive decline in AD apart from the Tau and amyloid pathogenesis through our BARHL1-ESR1 axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Pathway Enrichment Analysis with Networks
Genes 2017, 8(10), 246; doi:10.3390/genes8100246
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
Detecting associations between an input gene set and annotated gene sets (e.g., pathways) is an important problem in modern molecular biology. In this paper, we propose two algorithms, termed NetPEA and NetPEA’, for conducting network-based pathway enrichment analysis. Our algorithms consider not only
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Detecting associations between an input gene set and annotated gene sets (e.g., pathways) is an important problem in modern molecular biology. In this paper, we propose two algorithms, termed NetPEA and NetPEA’, for conducting network-based pathway enrichment analysis. Our algorithms consider not only shared genes but also gene–gene interactions. Both algorithms utilize a protein–protein interaction network and a random walk with a restart procedure to identify hidden relationships between an input gene set and pathways, but both use different randomization strategies to evaluate statistical significance and as a result emphasize different pathway properties. Compared to an over representation-based method, our algorithms can identify more statistically significant pathways. Compared to an existing network-based algorithm, EnrichNet, our algorithms have a higher sensitivity in revealing the true causal pathways while at the same time achieving a higher specificity. A literature review of selected results indicates that some of the novel pathways reported by our algorithms are biologically relevant and important. While the evaluations are performed only with KEGG pathways, we believe the algorithms can be valuable for general functional discovery from high-throughput experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Genomics and Systems Medicine in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species
Genes 2017, 8(10), 249; doi:10.3390/genes8100249
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six
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Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis, we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago, soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D) often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis, common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle Network-Based Method for Identifying Co-Regeneration Genes in Bone, Dentin, Nerve and Vessel Tissues
Genes 2017, 8(10), 252; doi:10.3390/genes8100252
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
Bone and dental diseases are serious public health problems. Most current clinical treatments for these diseases can produce side effects. Regeneration is a promising therapy for bone and dental diseases, yielding natural tissue recovery with few side effects. Because soft tissues inside the
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Bone and dental diseases are serious public health problems. Most current clinical treatments for these diseases can produce side effects. Regeneration is a promising therapy for bone and dental diseases, yielding natural tissue recovery with few side effects. Because soft tissues inside the bone and dentin are densely populated with nerves and vessels, the study of bone and dentin regeneration should also consider the co-regeneration of nerves and vessels. In this study, a network-based method to identify co-regeneration genes for bone, dentin, nerve and vessel was constructed based on an extensive network of protein–protein interactions. Three procedures were applied in the network-based method. The first procedure, searching, sought the shortest paths connecting regeneration genes of one tissue type with regeneration genes of other tissues, thereby extracting possible co-regeneration genes. The second procedure, testing, employed a permutation test to evaluate whether possible genes were false discoveries; these genes were excluded by the testing procedure. The last procedure, screening, employed two rules, the betweenness ratio rule and interaction score rule, to select the most essential genes. A total of seventeen genes were inferred by the method, which were deemed to contribute to co-regeneration of at least two tissues. All these seventeen genes were extensively discussed to validate the utility of the method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alterations of miRNAs and Their Potential Roles in Arsenite-Induced Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Genes 2017, 8(10), 254; doi:10.3390/genes8100254
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
The alterations of micro RNAs (miRNAs) and their potential roles in arsenite-induced tumorigenesis are still poorly understood. In this study, miRNA Array was used to detect the expression level of miRNAs in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells that were transformed by 2.5 μM
[...] Read more.
The alterations of micro RNAs (miRNAs) and their potential roles in arsenite-induced tumorigenesis are still poorly understood. In this study, miRNA Array was used to detect the expression level of miRNAs in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells that were transformed by 2.5 μM arsenite for 13 weeks. These cells exhibited a neoplastic phenotype manifested by increased levels of cellular proliferation and migration and clone formation. Subsequently, 191 dysregulated miRNAs were identified to be associated with arsenite-induced transformation by miRNA Array. Among them, six miRNAs were validated by their expression levels with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and 17 miRNAs were further explored via their target genes as well as regulatory network. Three databases, TargetMiner, miRDB, and TarBase, were used to predict the target genes of the 17 miRNAs, and a total of 954 common genes were sorted. Results of Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the 954 genes were involved in diverse terms of GO categories, such as positive regulation of macroautophagy, epithelial cell maturation, and synaptic vesicle clustering. Moreover, results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses demonstrated that most of these target genes were enriched in various cancer-related pathways, including non-small cell lung cancer, Wnt signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathway. The miRNA-gene regulatory network, which was constructed by cytoscape software with miRNAs and their target genes, showed that miR-15b-5p, miR-106b-5p, and miR-320d were the core hubs. Collectively, our results provide new insights into miRNA-mediated mechanisms underlying arsenite-induced transformation, although more experimental verification is still needed to prove these predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle De Novo Assembly and Analysis of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Garetn.) Transcriptome Discloses Key Regulators Involved in Salt-Stress Response
Genes 2017, 8(10), 255; doi:10.3390/genes8100255
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic
[...] Read more.
Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic and health-beneficial plant mainly distributing in southwest China. In this study, we performed physiological analysis and found that salt stress of 200 mM NaCl solution significantly affected the relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tartary buckwheat seedlings. Further, we conducted transcriptome comparison between control and salt treatment to identify potential regulatory components involved in F. tataricum salt responses. A total of 53.15 million clean reads from control and salt-treated libraries were produced via an Illumina sequencing approach. Then we de novo assembled these reads into a transcriptome dataset containing 57,921 unigenes with N50 length of 1400 bp and total length of 44.5 Mb. A total of 36,688 unigenes could find matches in public databases. GO, KEGG and KOG classification suggested the enrichment of these unigenes in 56 sub-categories, 25 KOG, and 273 pathways, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome expression patterns between control and salt treatment unveiled 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Further, we found the genes encoding for protein kinases, phosphatases, heat shock proteins (HSPs), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), abiotic-related transcription factors and circadian clock might be relevant to the salinity adaption of this species. Thus, this study offers an insight into salt tolerance mechanisms, and will serve as useful genetic information for tolerant elite breeding programs in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle The Genetic Basis of Pericentral Retinitis Pigmentosa—A Form of Mild Retinitis Pigmentosa
Genes 2017, 8(10), 256; doi:10.3390/genes8100256
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Pericentral retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an atypical form of RP that affects the near-peripheral retina first and tends to spare the far periphery. This study was performed to further define the genetic basis of this phenotype. We identified a cohort of 43 probands
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Pericentral retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an atypical form of RP that affects the near-peripheral retina first and tends to spare the far periphery. This study was performed to further define the genetic basis of this phenotype. We identified a cohort of 43 probands with pericentral RP based on a comprehensive analysis of their retinal phenotype. Genetic analyses of DNA samples from these patients were performed using panel-based next-generation sequencing, copy number variations, and whole exome sequencing (WES). Mutations provisionally responsible for disease were found in 19 of the 43 families (44%) analyzed. These include mutations in RHO (five patients), USH2A (four patients), and PDE6B (two patients). Of 28 putatively pathogenic alleles, 15 (54%) have been previously identified in patients with more common forms of typical RP, while the remaining 13 mutations (46%) were novel. Burden testing of WES data successfully identified HGSNAT as a cause of pericentral RP in at least two patients, suggesting it is also a relatively common cause of pericentral RP. While additional sequencing might uncover new genes specifically associated with pericentral RP, the current results suggest that genetically pericentral RP is not a separate clinical entity, but rather is part of the spectrum of mild RP phenotypes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Sequencing of Full-Length cDNA Transcripts of Stems and Leaves in Dendrobium officinale
Genes 2017, 8(10), 257; doi:10.3390/genes8100257
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has
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Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has been carried out on their alternatively spliced isoforms in D. officinale. In addition, information regarding the translocation of sugars from leaves to stems in D. officinale also remains limited. We analyzed the polysaccharide content of D. officinale leaves and stems, and completed in-depth transcriptome sequencing of these two diverse tissue types using second-generation sequencing (SGS) and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The results of this study yielded a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expressions. A comparative analysis of both transcriptomes uncovered a total of 1414 differentially expressed genes, including 844 that were up-regulated and 570 that were down-regulated in stems. Of these genes, one sugars will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET) and one sucrose transporter (SUT) are expressed to a greater extent in D. officinale stems than in leaves. Two glycosyltransferase (GT) and four cellulose synthase (Ces) genes undergo a distinct degree of alternative splicing. In the stems, the content of polysaccharides is twice as much as that in the leaves. The differentially expressed GT and transcription factor (TF) genes will be the focus of further study. The genes DoSWEET4 and DoSUT1 are significantly expressed in the stem, and are likely to be involved in sugar loading in the phloem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Novel EDA or EDAR Mutations Identified in Patients with X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia or Non-Syndromic Tooth Agenesis
Genes 2017, 8(10), 259; doi:10.3390/genes8100259
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA) result in symptoms of congenital tooth loss. This study investigated genetic causes in two families with XLHED and four families with NSTA. We screened for mutations of WNT10A, EDA,
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Abstract: Both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA) result in symptoms of congenital tooth loss. This study investigated genetic causes in two families with XLHED and four families with NSTA. We screened for mutations of WNT10A, EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, LRP6, and WNT10B through Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed for the proband of NSTA Family 4. Novel mutation c.1051G>T (p.Val351Phe) and the known mutation c.467G>A (p.Arg156His) of Ectodysplasin A (EDA) were identified in families with XLHED. Novel EDA receptor (EDAR) mutation c.73C>T (p.Arg25*), known EDA mutation c.491A>C (p.Glu164Ala), and known Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A) mutations c.511C>T (p.Arg171Cys) and c.742C>T (p.Arg248*) were identified in families with NSTA. The novel EDA and EDAR mutations were predicted as being pathogenic through bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling. Two variants of WNT10A, c.374G>A (p.Arg125Lys) and c.125A>G (p.Asn42Ser), were found in patients with NSTA. The two WNT10A variants were predicted to affect the splicing of message RNA, but minigene experiments showed normal splicing of mutated minigenes. This study uncovered the genetic foundations with respect to six families with XLHED or NSTA. We identified six mutations, of which two were novel mutations of EDA and EDAR. This is the first report of a nonsense EDAR mutation leading to NSTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Expression Profiling of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Genes Reveals Their Evolutionary and Functional Diversity in Different Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) Cultivars
Genes 2017, 8(10), 261; doi:10.3390/genes8100261
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth
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Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth period and lack of well annotated genome information. Here, we reported mitogen-activated protein kinases in H. brasiliensis (HbMPKs) by manually checking and correcting the rubber tree genome. Of the 20 identified HbMPKs, four members were validated by proteomic data. Protein motif and phylogenetic analyses classified these members into four known groups comprising Thr-Glu-Tyr (TEY) and Thr-Asp-Tyr (TDY) domains, respectively. Evolutionary and syntenic analyses suggested four duplication events: HbMPK3/HbMPK6, HbMPK8/HbMPK9/HbMPK15, HbMPK10/HbMPK12 and HbMPK11/HbMPK16/HbMPK19. Expression profiling of the identified HbMPKs in roots, stems, leaves and latex obtained from three cultivars with different latex yield ability revealed tissue- and variety-expression specificity of HbMPK paralogues. Gene expression patterns under osmotic, oxidative, salt and cold stresses, combined with cis-element distribution analyses, indicated different regulation patterns of HbMPK paralogues. Further, Ka/Ks and Tajima analyses suggested an accelerated evolutionary rate in paralogues HbMPK10/12. These results revealed HbMPKs have diverse functions in natural rubber biosynthesis, and highlighted the potential possibility of using MPKs to improve stress tolerance in future rubber tree breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Open AccessArticle Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano–Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications
Genes 2017, 8(10), 262; doi:10.3390/genes8100262
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East
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The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano–Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2). K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS) performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA). These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano–Christian period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Neglected Areas of Ancient DNA Research)
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Open AccessCommunication Analysis of the Impact of Known SPINK1 Missense Variants on Pre-mRNA Splicing and/or mRNA Stability in a Full-Length Gene Assay
Genes 2017, 8(10), 263; doi:10.3390/genes8100263
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
It is increasingly appreciated that missense variants may not only alter protein structure and function but may also influence pre-mRNA splicing and/or mRNA stability. Here we explore this issue in the context of currently known SPINK1 missense variants using a full-length gene assay.
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It is increasingly appreciated that missense variants may not only alter protein structure and function but may also influence pre-mRNA splicing and/or mRNA stability. Here we explore this issue in the context of currently known SPINK1 missense variants using a full-length gene assay. We demonstrated that 4 (17%) out of 24 variants tested significantly reduced pre-mRNA splicing and/or stability as compared with the wild-type. However, since the strongest effect observed was a 23% reduction from normal, the contribution of SPINK1 missense variants to the clinical phenotype through an impact on mRNA processing alone may be relatively minor compared with their effects in relation to protein structure/function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Identification of Mutations in Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Wild and Cultivated Beets
Genes 2017, 8(10), 264; doi:10.3390/genes8100264
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were searched bioinformatically in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome as potential candidates for improving resistance against different diseases. In the present study, Ion Torrent sequencing technology was used to identify mutations in 21 RGAs. The DNA
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Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were searched bioinformatically in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome as potential candidates for improving resistance against different diseases. In the present study, Ion Torrent sequencing technology was used to identify mutations in 21 RGAs. The DNA samples of ninety-six individuals from six sea beets (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) and six sugar beet pollinators (eight individuals each) were used for the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Target amplicons of about 200 bp in length were designed with the Ion AmpliSeq Designer system in order to cover the DNA sequences of the RGAs. The number of SNPs ranged from 0 in four individuals to 278 in the pollinator R740 (which is resistant to rhizomania infection). Among different groups of beets, cytoplasmic male sterile lines had the highest number of SNPs (132) whereas the lowest number of SNPs belonged to O-types (95). The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that the polymorphisms inside the gene Bv8_184910_pkon (including the CCCTCC sequence) can effectively differentiate wild from cultivated beets, pointing at a possible mutation associated to rhizomania resistance that originated directly from cultivated beets. This is unlike other resistance sources that are introgressed from wild beets. This gene belongs to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) class of RGAs, and is associated to a hypothetical protein. In conclusion, this first report of using Ion Torrent sequencing technology in beet germplasm suggests that the identified sequence CCCTCC can be used in marker-assisted programs to differentiate wild from domestic beets and to identify other unknown disease resistance genes in beet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Cloning, Recombinant Expression and Antifungal Activity of BnCPI, a Cystatin in Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.)
Genes 2017, 8(10), 265; doi:10.3390/genes8100265
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Phytocystatins play multiple roles in plant growth, development and resistance to pests and other environmental stresses. A ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) phytocystatin gene, designated as BnCPI, was isolated from a ramie cDNA library and its full-length cDNA was obtained by rapid
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Phytocystatins play multiple roles in plant growth, development and resistance to pests and other environmental stresses. A ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) phytocystatin gene, designated as BnCPI, was isolated from a ramie cDNA library and its full-length cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA sequence (691 bp) consisted of a 303 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 100 amino acids with deduced molecular mass of 11.06 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.0. The alignment of genome DNA (accession no. MF153097) and cDNA sequences of BnCPI showed that an intron (~104 bp) exists in the coding region. The BnCPI protein contains most of the highly conserved blocks including Gly5-Gly6 at the N-terminal, the reactive site motif QxVxG (Q49V50V51S52G53), the L79-W80 block and the [LVI]-[AGT]-[RKE]-[FY]-[AS]-[VI]-x-[EDQV]-[HYFQ]-N (L22G23R24 F25A26V27 D28D29H30 N31) block that is common among plant cystatins. BLAST analysis indicated that BnCPI is similar to cystatins from Glycine max (77%), Glycine soja (76%), Hevea brasiliensis (75%) and Ricinus communis (75%). The BnCPI was subcloned into expression vector pSmart-I and then overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a His-tagged recombinant protein. The purified reBnCPI has a molecular mass of 11.4 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). Purified reBnCPI can efficiently inhibit the protease activity of papain and ficin toward BANA (Nα-benzoyl-L-arginine-2-naphthyamide), as well as the mycelium growth of some important plant pathogenic fungi. The data further contribute to our understanding of the molecular functions of BnCPI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle DMRTC2, PAX7, BRACHYURY/T and TERT Are Implicated in Male Germ Cell Development Following Curative Hormone Treatment for Cryptorchidism-Induced Infertility
Genes 2017, 8(10), 267; doi:10.3390/genes8100267
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Defective mini-puberty results in insufficient testosterone secretion that impairs the differentiation of gonocytes into dark-type (Ad) spermatogonia. The differentiation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia can be induced by administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, GnRHa (Buserelin, INN)). Nothing is known about the mechanism
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Defective mini-puberty results in insufficient testosterone secretion that impairs the differentiation of gonocytes into dark-type (Ad) spermatogonia. The differentiation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia can be induced by administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, GnRHa (Buserelin, INN)). Nothing is known about the mechanism that underlies successful GnRHa treatment in the germ cells. Using RNA-sequencing of testicular biopsies, we recently examined RNA profiles of testes with and without GnRHa treatment. Here, we focused on the expression patterns of known gene markers for gonocytes and spermatogonia, and found that DMRTC2, PAX7, BRACHYURY/T, and TERT were associated with defective mini-puberty and were responsive to GnRHa. These results indicate novel testosterone-dependent genes and provide valuable insight into the transcriptional response to both defective mini-puberty and curative GnRHa treatment, which prevents infertility in man with one or both undescended (cryptorchid) testes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Grade Dysplastic Nodules Revealed as the Tipping Point during Multistep Hepatocarcinogenesis by Dynamic Network Biomarkers
Genes 2017, 8(10), 268; doi:10.3390/genes8100268
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease with a multi-step carcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions, including cirrhosis, low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs), and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs) to HCC. There is only an elemental understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, for which a key problem
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease with a multi-step carcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions, including cirrhosis, low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs), and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs) to HCC. There is only an elemental understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, for which a key problem is to identify when and how the critical transition happens during the HCC initiation period at a molecular level. In this work, for the first time, we revealed that LGDNs is the tipping point (i.e., pre-HCC state rather than HCC state) of hepatocarcinogenesis based on a series of gene expression profiles by a new mathematical model termed dynamic network biomarkers (DNB)—a group of dominant genes or molecules for the transition. Different from the conventional biomarkers based on the differential expressions of the observed genes (or molecules) for diagnosing a disease state, the DNB model exploits collective fluctuations and correlations of the observed genes, thereby predicting the imminent disease state or diagnosing the critical state. Our results show that DNB composed of 59 genes signals the tipping point of HCC (i.e., LGDNs). On the other hand, there are a large number of differentially expressed genes between cirrhosis and HGDNs, which highlighted the stark differences or drastic changes before and after the tipping point or LGDNs, implying the 59 DNB members serving as the early-warning signals of the upcoming drastic deterioration for HCC. We further identified the biological pathways responsible for this transition, such as the type I interferon signaling pathway, Janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK–STAT) signaling pathway, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, and cell cycle. In particular, pathways related to immune system reactions and cell adhesion were downregulated, and pathways related to cell growth and death were upregulated. Furthermore, DNB was validated as an effective predictor of prognosis for HCV-induced HCC patients by survival analysis on independent data, suggesting a potential clinical application of DNB. This work provides biological insights into the dynamic regulations of the critical transitions during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Genomics and Systems Medicine in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle The Plasticizer Bisphenol A Perturbs the Hepatic Epigenome: A Systems Level Analysis of the miRNome
Genes 2017, 8(10), 269; doi:10.3390/genes8100269
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Ubiquitous exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor (ED), has raised concerns for both human and ecosystem health. Epigenetic factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are key regulators of gene expression during cancer. The effect of BPA exposure on the zebrafish epigenome remains poorly
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Ubiquitous exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor (ED), has raised concerns for both human and ecosystem health. Epigenetic factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are key regulators of gene expression during cancer. The effect of BPA exposure on the zebrafish epigenome remains poorly characterized. Zebrafish represents an excellent model to study cancer as the organism develops a disease that resembles human cancer. Using zebrafish as a systems toxicology model, we hypothesized that chronic BPA-exposure impacts the miRNome in adult zebrafish and establishes an epigenome more susceptible to cancer development. After a 3 week exposure to 100 nM BPA, RNA from the liver was extracted to perform high throughput mRNA and miRNA sequencing. Differential expression (DE) analyses comparing BPA-exposed to control specimens were performed using established bioinformatics pipelines. In the BPA-exposed liver, 6188 mRNAs and 15 miRNAs were differently expressed (q ≤ 0.1). By analyzing human orthologs of the DE zebrafish genes, signatures associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle were uncovered. Chronic exposure to BPA has a significant impact on the liver miRNome and transcriptome in adult zebrafish with the potential to cause adverse health outcomes including cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: The Key for Cancer Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Microfragmented Fat Tissue on Proteoglycan Synthesis in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Genes 2017, 8(10), 270; doi:10.3390/genes8100270
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading musculoskeletal disorders in the adult population. It is associated with cartilage damage triggered by the deterioration of the extracellular matrix tissue. The present study explores the effect of intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue to
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading musculoskeletal disorders in the adult population. It is associated with cartilage damage triggered by the deterioration of the extracellular matrix tissue. The present study explores the effect of intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue to host chondrocytes and cartilage proteoglycans in patients with knee OA. A prospective, non-randomized, interventional, single-center, open-label clinical trial was conducted from January 2016 to April 2017. A total of 17 patients were enrolled in the study, and 32 knees with osteoarthritis were assessed. Surgical intervention (lipoaspiration) followed by tissue processing and intra-articular injection of the final microfragmented adipose tissue product into the affected knee(s) was performed in all patients. Patients were assessed for visual analogue scale (VAS), delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycans at the baseline, three, six and 12 months after the treatment. Magnetic resonance sequence in dGEMRIC due to infiltration of the anionic, negatively charged contrast gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA2−) into the cartilage indicated that the contents of cartilage glycosaminoglycans significantly increased in specific areas of the treated knee joint. In addition, dGEMRIC consequently reflected subsequent changes in the mechanical axis of the lower extremities. The results of our study indicate that the use of autologous and microfragmented adipose tissue in patients with knee OA (measured by dGEMRIC MRI) increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in hyaline cartilage, which is in line with observed VAS and clinical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on the Expression Profile of miRNAs in Porcine Adipose Tissue
Genes 2017, 8(10), 271; doi:10.3390/genes8100271
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) play a major role in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) appear to be involved in many biological processes in adipose tissue. However, the specific influence on miRNAs by CLA supplementation in porcine adipose tissue remains
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Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) play a major role in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) appear to be involved in many biological processes in adipose tissue. However, the specific influence on miRNAs by CLA supplementation in porcine adipose tissue remains unclear. Thus, we continuously added 1.5% CLA to the pig diet from the embryo stage to the finishing period and conducted a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyse the changes in adipose tissue miRNAs. We identified 283 known porcine miRNAs, and 14 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to CLA treatment. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the targets of the 14 differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in the Wnt signalling pathway. The CLA treatment downregulated the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and FATP1 in both subcutaneous and abdominal fat tissues; the analysis showed that ssc-miR-21 expression was significantly correlated with PPARγ expression (p<0.05), and speculated that ssc-miR-21 might influence adipogenesis through PPARγ. In conclusion, our study analysed the miRNA profiles in porcine adipose tissues by CLA treatment, and demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators of fat lipogenesis. This study provides valuable information for the molecular regulatory mechanism of CLA on adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle The History of Tree and Shrub Taxa on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago) since the Last Interglacial Uncovered by Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Pollen Data
Genes 2017, 8(10), 273; doi:10.3390/genes8100273
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to
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Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to access. Using pollen analysis and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding, we reveal vegetation changes on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island since the last interglacial from permafrost sediments. Last interglacial samples depict high levels of floral diversity with the presence of trees (Larix, Picea, Populus) and shrubs (Alnus, Betula, Ribes, Cornus, Saliceae) on the currently treeless island. After the Last Glacial Maximum, Larix re-colonised the island but disappeared along with most shrub taxa. This was probably caused by Holocene sea-level rise, which led to increased oceanic conditions on the island. Additionally, we applied two newly developed larch-specific chloroplast markers to evaluate their potential for tracking past population dynamics from environmental samples. The novel markers were successfully re-sequenced and exhibited two variants of each marker in last interglacial samples. SedaDNA can track vegetation changes as well as genetic changes across geographic space through time and can improve our understanding of past processes that shape modern patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Neglected Areas of Ancient DNA Research)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs and Coding Genes Uncovers a Complex Regulatory Network That Is Involved in Maize Seed Development
Genes 2017, 8(10), 274; doi:10.3390/genes8100274
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in the development of maize plant. However, few focused on seed development of maize. Here, we identified 753 lncRNA candidates in maize genome from six seed samples. Similar to the mRNAs, lncRNAs showed
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in the development of maize plant. However, few focused on seed development of maize. Here, we identified 753 lncRNA candidates in maize genome from six seed samples. Similar to the mRNAs, lncRNAs showed tissue developmental stage specific and differential expression, indicating their putative role in seed development. Increasing evidence shows that crosstalk among RNAs mediated by shared microRNAs (miRNAs) represents a novel layer of gene regulation, which plays important roles in plant development. Functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) in plants, particularly in maize seed development, are unclear. We combined analyses of consistently altered 17 lncRNAs, 840 mRNAs and known miRNA to genome-wide investigate potential lncRNA-mediated ceRNA based on “ceRNA hypothesis”. The results uncovered seven novel lncRNAs as potential functional ceRNAs. Functional analyses based on their competitive coding-gene partners by Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG biological pathway demonstrated that combined effects of multiple ceRNAs can have major impacts on general developmental and metabolic processes in maize seed. These findings provided a useful platform for uncovering novel mechanisms of maize seed development and may provide opportunities for the functional characterization of individual lncRNA in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of TALE Homeobox Genes in the Endangered Fern Vandenboschia speciosa
Genes 2017, 8(10), 275; doi:10.3390/genes8100275
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
We report and discuss the results of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the expression patterns of seven three amino acid loop extension (TALE) homeobox genes (four KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) and three BEL1-like homeobox (
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We report and discuss the results of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the expression patterns of seven three amino acid loop extension (TALE) homeobox genes (four KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) and three BEL1-like homeobox (BELL) genes) identified after next generation sequencing (NGS) and assembly of the sporophyte and gametophyte transcriptomes of the endangered fern species Vandenboschia speciosa. Among the four KNOX genes, two belonged to the KNOX1 class and the other two belonged to the KNOX2 class. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences supported the typical domain structure of both types of TALE proteins, and the homology to TALE proteins of mosses, lycophytes, and seed plant species. The expression analyses demonstrate that these homeodomain proteins appear to have a key role in the establishment and development of the gametophyte and sporophyte phases of V. speciosa lifecycle, as well as in the control of the transition between both phases. Vandenboschia speciosa VsKNAT3 (a KNOX2 class protein) as well as VsBELL4 and VsBELL10 proteins have higher expression levels during the sporophyte program. On the contrary, one V. speciosa KNOX1 protein (VsKNAT6) and one KNOX2 protein (VsKNAT4) seem important during the development of the gametophyte phase. TALE homeobox genes might be among the key regulators in the gametophyte-to-sporophyte developmental transition in regular populations that show alternation of generations, since some of the genes analyzed here (VsKNAT3, VsKNAT6, VsBELL4, and VsBELL6) are upregulated in a non-alternating population in which only independent gametophytes are found (they grow by vegetative reproduction outside of the range of sporophyte distribution). Thus, these four genes might trigger the vegetative propagation of the gametophyte and the repression of the sexual development in populations composed of independent gametophytes. This study represents a comprehensive identification and characterization of TALE homeobox genes in V. speciosa, and gives novel insights about the role of these genes in fern development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Further Insights into the Ciliary Gene and Protein KIZ and Its Murine Ortholog PLK1S1 Mutated in Rod-Cone Dystrophy
Genes 2017, 8(10), 277; doi:10.3390/genes8100277
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
We identified herein additional patients with rod-cone dystrophy (RCD) displaying mutations in KIZ, encoding the ciliary centrosomal protein kizuna and performed functional characterization of the respective protein in human fibroblasts and of its mouse ortholog PLK1S1 in the retina. Mutation screening was
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We identified herein additional patients with rod-cone dystrophy (RCD) displaying mutations in KIZ, encoding the ciliary centrosomal protein kizuna and performed functional characterization of the respective protein in human fibroblasts and of its mouse ortholog PLK1S1 in the retina. Mutation screening was done by targeted next generation sequencing and subsequent Sanger sequencing validation. KIZ mRNA levels were assessed on blood and serum-deprived human fibroblasts from a control individual and a patient, compound heterozygous for the c.52G>T (p.Glu18*) and c.119_122del (p.Lys40Ilefs*14) mutations in KIZ. KIZ localization, documentation of cilium length and immunoblotting were performed in these two fibroblast cell lines. In addition, PLK1S1 immunolocalization was conducted in mouse retinal cryosections and isolated rod photoreceptors. Analyses of additional RCD patients enabled the identification of two homozygous mutations in KIZ, the known c.226C>T (p.Arg76*) mutation and a novel variant, the c.3G>A (p.Met1?) mutation. Albeit the expression levels of KIZ were three-times lower in the patient than controls in whole blood cells, further analyses in control- and mutant KIZ patient-derived fibroblasts unexpectedly revealed no significant difference between the two genotypes. Furthermore, the averaged monocilia length in the two fibroblast cell lines was similar, consistent with the preserved immunolocalization of KIZ at the basal body of the primary cilia. Analyses in mouse retina and isolated rod photoreceptors showed PLK1S1 localization at the base of the photoreceptor connecting cilium. In conclusion, two additional patients with mutations in KIZ were identified, further supporting that defects in KIZ/PLK1S1, detected at the basal body of the primary cilia in fibroblasts, and the photoreceptor connecting cilium in mouse, respectively, are involved in RCD. However, albeit the mutations were predicted to lead to nonsense mediated mRNA decay, we could not detect changes upon expression levels, protein localization or cilia length in KIZ-mutated fibroblast cells. Together, our findings unveil the limitations of fibroblasts as a cellular model for RCD and call for other models such as induced pluripotent stem cells to shed light on retinal pathogenic mechanisms of KIZ mutations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A DNA Structural Alphabet Distinguishes Structural Features of DNA Bound to Regulatory Proteins and in the Nucleosome Core Particle
Genes 2017, 8(10), 278; doi:10.3390/genes8100278
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
We analyzed the structural behavior of DNA complexed with regulatory proteins and the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The three-dimensional structures of almost 25 thousand dinucleotide steps from more than 500 sequentially non-redundant crystal structures were classified by using DNA structural alphabet CANA (Conformational
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We analyzed the structural behavior of DNA complexed with regulatory proteins and the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The three-dimensional structures of almost 25 thousand dinucleotide steps from more than 500 sequentially non-redundant crystal structures were classified by using DNA structural alphabet CANA (Conformational Alphabet of Nucleic Acids) and associations between ten CANA letters and sixteen dinucleotide sequences were investigated. The associations showed features discriminating between specific and non-specific binding of DNA to proteins. Important is the specific role of two DNA structural forms, A-DNA, and BII-DNA, represented by the CANA letters AAA and BB2: AAA structures are avoided in non-specific NCP complexes, where the wrapping of the DNA duplex is explained by the periodic occurrence of BB2 every 10.3 steps. In both regulatory and NCP complexes, the extent of bending of the DNA local helical axis does not influence proportional representation of the CANA alphabet letters, namely the relative incidences of AAA and BB2 remain constant in bent and straight duplexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein-DNA Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical and Genetic Evaluation of a Cohort of Pediatric Patients with Severe Inherited Retinal Dystrophies
Genes 2017, 8(10), 280; doi:10.3390/genes8100280
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
We performed a clinical and genetic characterization of a pediatric cohort of patients with inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) to identify the most suitable cases for gene therapy. The cohort comprised 43 patients, aged between 2 and 18 years, with severe isolated IRD at
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We performed a clinical and genetic characterization of a pediatric cohort of patients with inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) to identify the most suitable cases for gene therapy. The cohort comprised 43 patients, aged between 2 and 18 years, with severe isolated IRD at the time of presentation. The ophthalmological characterization also included assessment of the photoreceptor layer integrity in the macular region (ellipsoid zone (EZ) band). In parallel, we carried out a targeted, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis using a panel that covers over 150 genes with either an established or a candidate role in IRD pathogenesis. Based on the ophthalmological assessment, the cohort was composed of 24 Leber congenital amaurosis, 14 early onset retinitis pigmentosa, and 5 achromatopsia patients. We identified causative mutations in 58.1% of the cases. We also found novel genotype-phenotype correlations in patients harboring mutations in the CEP290 and CNGB3 genes. The EZ band was detectable in 40% of the analyzed cases, also in patients with genotypes usually associated with severe clinical manifestations. This study provides the first detailed clinical-genetic assessment of severe IRDs with infantile onset and lays the foundation of a standardized protocol for the selection of patients that are more likely to benefit from gene replacement therapeutic approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Formulated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in the MCF-7 Cancer Cell Line
Genes 2017, 8(10), 281; doi:10.3390/genes8100281
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Green products have strong potential in the discovery and development of unique drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been observed to have powerful cytotoxicity against cells that cause breast cancer. The present study aims to examine the cell cycle profile, status of
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Green products have strong potential in the discovery and development of unique drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been observed to have powerful cytotoxicity against cells that cause breast cancer. The present study aims to examine the cell cycle profile, status of cell death, and pathways of apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) treated with biosynthesized ZnO NPs. The anti-proliferative activity of ZnO NPs was determined using MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis and the mode of cell death were evaluated using a flow cytometry instrument. Quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to investigate the expression of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. ZnO NPs were cytotoxic to the MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% growth inhibition concentration (IC50) of ZnO NPs at 24 h was 121 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis revealed that ZnO NPs induced sub-G1 phase (apoptosis), with values of 1.87% at 0 μg/mL (control), 71.49% at IC25, 98.91% at IC50, and 99.44% at IC75. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry analysis confirmed that ZnO NPs induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The pro-apoptotic genes p53, p21, Bax, and JNK were upregulated, whereas anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2, AKT1, and ERK1/2 were downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. The arrest and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells were induced by ZnO NPs through several signalling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Chromosome Synapsis and Recombination in Male Hybrids between Two Chromosome Races of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus L., Soricidae, Eulipotyphla)
Genes 2017, 8(10), 282; doi:10.3390/genes8100282
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Hybrid zones between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) provide exceptional models to study the potential role of chromosome rearrangements in the initial steps of speciation. The Novosibirsk and Tomsk races differ by a series of Robertsonian fusions with
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Hybrid zones between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) provide exceptional models to study the potential role of chromosome rearrangements in the initial steps of speciation. The Novosibirsk and Tomsk races differ by a series of Robertsonian fusions with monobrachial homology. They form a narrow hybrid zone and generate hybrids with both simple (chain of three chromosomes) and complex (chain of eight or nine) synaptic configurations. Using immunolocalisation of the meiotic proteins, we examined chromosome pairing and recombination in males from the hybrid zone. Homozygotes and simple heterozygotes for Robertsonian fusions showed a low frequency of synaptic aberrations (<10%). The carriers of complex synaptic configurations showed multiple pairing abnormalities, which might lead to reduced fertility. The recombination frequency in the proximal regions of most chromosomes of all karyotypes was much lower than in the other regions. The strong suppression of recombination in the pericentromeric regions and co-segregation of race specific chromosomes involved in the long chains would be expected to lead to linkage disequilibrium between genes located there. Genic differentiation, together with the high frequency of pairing aberrations in male carriers of the long chains, might contribute to maintenance of the narrow hybrid zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessCommunication Allelic Expression Imbalance in the Human Retinal Transcriptome and Potential Impact on Inherited Retinal Diseases
Genes 2017, 8(10), 283; doi:10.3390/genes8100283
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are often associated with variable clinical expressivity (VE) and incomplete penetrance (IP). Underlying mechanisms may include environmental, epigenetic, and genetic factors. Cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) can be implicated in the regulation of genes by
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Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are often associated with variable clinical expressivity (VE) and incomplete penetrance (IP). Underlying mechanisms may include environmental, epigenetic, and genetic factors. Cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) can be implicated in the regulation of genes by favoring or hampering the expression of one allele over the other. Thus, the presence of such loci elicits allelic expression imbalance (AEI) that can be traced by massive parallel sequencing techniques. In this study, we performed an AEI analysis on RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data, from 52 healthy retina donors, that identified 194 imbalanced single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in 67 IRD genes. Focusing on SNPs displaying AEI at a frequency higher than 10%, we found evidence of AEI in several IRD genes regularly associated with IP and VE (BEST1, RP1, PROM1, and PRPH2). Based on these SNPs commonly undergoing AEI, we performed pyrosequencing in an independent sample set of 17 healthy retina donors in order to confirm our findings. Indeed, we were able to validate CDHR1, BEST1, and PROM1 to be subjected to cis-acting regulation. With this work, we aim to shed light on differentially expressed alleles in the human retina transcriptome that, in the context of autosomal dominant IRD cases, could help to explain IP or VE. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Novel Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR Assays for Thiopurine Intolerance Susceptibility Mutations NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C) in East Asians
Genes 2017, 8(10), 285; doi:10.3390/genes8100285
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Thiopurines are clinically useful in the management of diverse immunological and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, these purine analogues can cause lethal myelosuppression, which may be prevented by prospective testing for variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and, in East Asians, Nudix hydrolase
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Thiopurines are clinically useful in the management of diverse immunological and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, these purine analogues can cause lethal myelosuppression, which may be prevented by prospective testing for variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and, in East Asians, Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15) genes. Two single-tube, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) assays were developed to genotype the common loss-of-function variants NUDT15 c.415C>T (rs116855232) and TPMT*3C c.719A>G (rs1142345). In a group of 60 unselected patients, one and seven were found to be homozygous and heterozygous, respectively, for NUDT15 c.415C>T; one was found to be heterozygous for TPMT*3C c.719A>G. There was no non-specific amplification, and the genotypes were 100% concordant with Sanger sequencing. Limit-of-detection for both assays was below 1 ng of heterozygous template per reaction. Time- and cost-effective ARMS-PCR assays, suitable for genotyping East-Asian patients for thiopurine intolerance, were successfully developed and validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes
Genes 2017, 8(10), 287; doi:10.3390/genes8100287
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall
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Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus, representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus, respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horizontal Gene Transfer)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus
Genes 2017, 8(10), 288; doi:10.3390/genes8100288
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed (Brassica napus). In this study, we identified 247
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The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed (Brassica napus). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B. napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B. napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B. napus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estimating Phylogenies from Large Genomic Datasets)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Gene Expression Changes in the Aorta of ApoE Null Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Genes 2017, 8(10), 289; doi:10.3390/genes8100289
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease with high worldwide prevalence, and has become the leading cause of death. In the present study, we analyzed global gene expression changes in the aorta of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) null mice fed a high-fat diet by
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease with high worldwide prevalence, and has become the leading cause of death. In the present study, we analyzed global gene expression changes in the aorta of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) null mice fed a high-fat diet by using RNA-seq. We identified a total of 280 differentially expressed genes, of which 163 genes were upregulated and 117 genes were downregulated by high-fat diet compared with normal diet. Functional clustering and gene network analysis revealed that fatty acid metabolic process is crucial for atherosclerosis. By examining of the promoter regions of differentially expressed genes, we identified four causal transcription factors. Additionally, through connectivity map (CMap) analysis, multiple compounds were identified to have anti-atherosclerotic effects due to their ability to reverse gene expression during atherosclerosis. Our study provides a valuable resource for in-depth understanding of the mechanism underlying atherosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer and the Potential Development of Therapeutic Tools
Genes 2017, 8(10), 217; doi:10.3390/genes8100217
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast
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Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast cancer, and even when the role of alternative splicing in this type of cancer has been established, the function of this mechanism in breast cancer biology is not completely decoded. In order to gain a comprehensive view of the role of alternative splicing in breast cancer biology and development, we summarize here recent findings regarding alternative splicing events that have been well documented for breast cancer evolution, considering its prognostic and therapeutic value. Moreover, we analyze how the response to endocrine and chemical therapies could be affected due to alternative splicing and differential expression of variant isoforms. With all this knowledge, it becomes clear that targeting alternative splicing represents an innovative approach for breast cancer therapeutics and the information derived from current studies could guide clinical decisions with a direct impact in the clinical advances for breast cancer patients nowadays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aberrant Pre-mRNA Splicing in Disease)
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Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicle‐Associated RNA as a Carrier of Epigenetic Information
Genes 2017, 8(10), 240; doi:10.3390/genes8100240
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Post‐transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) metabolism and subcellular localization is of the utmost importance both during development and in cell differentiation. Besides carrying genetic information, mRNAs contain cis‐acting signals (zip codes), usually present in their 5′‐ and 3′‐untranslated regions (UTRs). By binding
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Post‐transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) metabolism and subcellular localization is of the utmost importance both during development and in cell differentiation. Besides carrying genetic information, mRNAs contain cis‐acting signals (zip codes), usually present in their 5′‐ and 3′‐untranslated regions (UTRs). By binding to these signals, trans‐acting factors, such as RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs), and/or non‐coding RNAs (ncRNAs), control mRNA localization, translation and stability. RBPs can also form complexes with non‐coding RNAs of different sizes. The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a conserved process that allows both normal and cancer cells to horizontally transfer molecules, and hence properties, to neighboring cells. By interacting with proteins that are specifically sorted to EVs, mRNAs as well as ncRNAs can be transferred from cell to cell. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the sorting to EVs of different classes of molecules, as well as the role of extracellular RNAs and the associated proteins in altering gene expression in the recipient cells. Importantly, if, on the one hand, RBPs play a critical role in transferring RNAs through EVs, RNA itself could, on the other hand, function as a carrier to transfer proteins (i.e., chromatin modifiers, and transcription factors) that, once transferred, can alter the cell’s epigenome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Modification)
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Open AccessReview Air Quality Effects on Human Health and Approaches for Its Assessment through Microfluidic Chips
Genes 2017, 8(10), 244; doi:10.3390/genes8100244
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Air quality depends on the various gases and particles present in it. Both natural phenomena and human activities affect the cleanliness of air. In the last decade, many countries experienced an unprecedented industrial growth, resulting in changing air quality values, and correspondingly, affecting
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Air quality depends on the various gases and particles present in it. Both natural phenomena and human activities affect the cleanliness of air. In the last decade, many countries experienced an unprecedented industrial growth, resulting in changing air quality values, and correspondingly, affecting our life quality. Air quality can be accessed by employing microchips that qualitatively and quantitatively determine the present gases and dust particles. The so-called particular matter 2.5 (PM2.5) values are of high importance, as such small particles can penetrate the human lung barrier and enter the blood system. There are cancer cases related to many air pollutants, and especially to PM2.5, contributing to exploding costs within the healthcare system. We focus on various current and potential future air pollutants, and propose solutions on how to protect our health against such dangerous substances. Recent developments in the Organ-on-Chip (OoC) technology can be used to study air pollution as well. OoC allows determination of pollutant toxicity and speeds up the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From the Lab-on-a-Chip to the Organ-on-a-Chip)
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Open AccessReview Et tu, Brute? Not Even Intracellular Mutualistic Symbionts Escape Horizontal Gene Transfer
Genes 2017, 8(10), 247; doi:10.3390/genes8100247
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Many insect species maintain mutualistic relationships with endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to their free-living relatives, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has traditionally been considered rare in long-term endosymbionts. Nevertheless, meta-omics exploration of certain symbiotic models has unveiled an increasing number of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host
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Many insect species maintain mutualistic relationships with endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to their free-living relatives, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has traditionally been considered rare in long-term endosymbionts. Nevertheless, meta-omics exploration of certain symbiotic models has unveiled an increasing number of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host genetic transfers. The abundance and function of transferred loci suggest that HGT might play a major role in the evolution of the corresponding consortia, enhancing their adaptive value or buffering detrimental effects derived from the reductive evolution of endosymbionts’ genomes. Here, we comprehensively review the HGT cases recorded to date in insect-bacteria mutualistic consortia, and discuss their impact on the evolutionary success of these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horizontal Gene Transfer)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Gut Microbiota Composition
Genes 2017, 8(10), 250; doi:10.3390/genes8100250
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It
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Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis. In this review; we aim to cover the current knowledge about the effects of antidiabetic drugs on gut microbiota diversity and composition as well as the potential beneficial effects mediated by specific taxa. Metformin is the first-line treatment against T2D. In addition to its glucose-lowering and insulin sensitizing effects, metformin promotes SCFA-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria. Other antidiabetic drugs discussed in this review show positive effects on dysbiosis; but without any consensus specifically regarding the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Thus, beneficial effects might be mediated by specific taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
Open AccessReview Dystrophin Dp116: A yet to Be Investigated Product of the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene
Genes 2017, 8(10), 251; doi:10.3390/genes8100251
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract
The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene is one of the largest genes in the human genome. The gene exhibits a complex arrangement of seven alternative promoters, which drive the expression of three full length and four shorter isoforms. Dp116, the second
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The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene is one of the largest genes in the human genome. The gene exhibits a complex arrangement of seven alternative promoters, which drive the expression of three full length and four shorter isoforms. Dp116, the second smallest product of the DMD gene, is a Schwann cell-specific isoform encoded by a transcript corresponding to DMD exons 56–79, starting from a promoter/exon S1 within intron 55. The physiological roles of Dp116 are poorly understood, because of its extensive homology with other isoforms and its expression in specific tissues. This review summarizes studies on Dp116, focusing on clinical findings and alternative activation of the upstream translation initiation codon that is predicted to produce Dp118. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Chromosomal Evolution in Lower Vertebrates: Sex Chromosomes in Neotropical Fishes
Genes 2017, 8(10), 258; doi:10.3390/genes8100258
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Fishes exhibit the greatest diversity of species among vertebrates, offering a number of relevant models for genetic and evolutionary studies. The investigation of sex chromosome differentiation is a very active and striking research area of fish cytogenetics, as fishes represent one
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Abstract: Fishes exhibit the greatest diversity of species among vertebrates, offering a number of relevant models for genetic and evolutionary studies. The investigation of sex chromosome differentiation is a very active and striking research area of fish cytogenetics, as fishes represent one of the most vital model groups. Neotropical fish species show an amazing variety of sex chromosome systems, where different stages of differentiation can be found, ranging from homomorphic to highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Here, we draw attention on the impact of recent developments in molecular cytogenetic analyses that helped to elucidate many unknown questions about fish sex chromosome evolution, using excellent characiform models occurring in the Neotropical region, namely the Erythrinidae family and the Triportheus genus. While in Erythrinidae distinct XY and/or multiple XY-derived sex chromosome systems have independently evolved at least four different times, representatives of Triportheus show an opposite scenario, i.e., highly conserved ZZ/ZW system with a monophyletic origin. In both cases, recent molecular approaches, such as mapping of repetitive DNA classes, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and whole chromosome painting (WCP), allowed us to unmask several new features linked to the molecular composition and differentiation processes of sex chromosomes in fishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessReview Intercompartmental Piecewise Gene Transfer
Genes 2017, 8(10), 260; doi:10.3390/genes8100260
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Gene relocation from the residual genomes of organelles to the nuclear genome still continues, although as a scaled down evolutionary phenomenon, limited in occurrence mostly to protists (sensu lato) and land plants. During this process, the structural integrity of transferred genes
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Gene relocation from the residual genomes of organelles to the nuclear genome still continues, although as a scaled down evolutionary phenomenon, limited in occurrence mostly to protists (sensu lato) and land plants. During this process, the structural integrity of transferred genes is usually preserved. However, the relocation of mitochondrial genes that code for respiratory chain and ribosomal proteins is sometimes associated with their fragmentation into two complementary genes. Herein, this review compiles cases of piecewise gene transfer from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and discusses hypothesized mechanistic links between the fission and relocation of those genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horizontal Gene Transfer)
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Open AccessReview Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera
Genes 2017, 8(10), 272; doi:10.3390/genes8100272
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n
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Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessReview Functional Characterization of Rare RAB12 Variants and Their Role in Musician’s and Other Dystonias
Genes 2017, 8(10), 276; doi:10.3390/genes8100276
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Mutations in RAB (member of the Ras superfamily) genes are increasingly recognized as cause of a variety of disorders including neurological conditions. While musician’s dystonia (MD) and writer’s dystonia (WD) are task-specific movement disorders, other dystonias persistently affect postures as in cervical dystonia.
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Mutations in RAB (member of the Ras superfamily) genes are increasingly recognized as cause of a variety of disorders including neurological conditions. While musician’s dystonia (MD) and writer’s dystonia (WD) are task-specific movement disorders, other dystonias persistently affect postures as in cervical dystonia. Little is known about the underlying etiology. Next-generation sequencing revealed a rare missense variant (c.586A>G; p.Ile196Val) in RAB12 in two of three MD/WD families. Next, we tested 916 additional dystonia patients; 512 Parkinson’s disease patients; and 461 healthy controls for RAB12 variants and identified 10 additional carriers of rare missense changes among dystonia patients (1.1%) but only one carrier in non-dystonic individuals (0.1%; p = 0.005). The detected variants among index patients comprised p.Ile196Val (n = 6); p.Ala174Thr (n = 3); p.Gly13Asp; p.Ala148Thr; and p.Arg181Gln in patients with MD; cervical dystonia; or WD. Two relatives of MD patients with WD also carried p.Ile196Val. The two variants identified in MD patients (p.Ile196Val; p.Gly13Asp) were characterized on endogenous levels in patient-derived fibroblasts and in two RAB12-overexpressing cell models. The ability to hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP), so called GTPase activity, was increased in mutants compared to wildtype. Furthermore, subcellular distribution of RAB12 in mutants was altered in fibroblasts. Soluble Transferrin receptor 1 levels were reduced in the blood of all three tested p.Ile196Val carriers. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enrichment of missense changes among dystonia patients. Functional characterization revealed altered enzyme activity and lysosomal distribution in mutants suggesting a contribution of RAB12 variants to MD and other dystonias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Chromosome Evolution in Connection with Repetitive Sequences and Epigenetics in Plants
Genes 2017, 8(10), 290; doi:10.3390/genes8100290
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Chromosome evolution is a fundamental aspect of evolutionary biology. The evolution of chromosome size, structure and shape, number, and the change in DNA composition suggest the high plasticity of nuclear genomes at the chromosomal level. Repetitive DNA sequences, which represent a conspicuous fraction
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Chromosome evolution is a fundamental aspect of evolutionary biology. The evolution of chromosome size, structure and shape, number, and the change in DNA composition suggest the high plasticity of nuclear genomes at the chromosomal level. Repetitive DNA sequences, which represent a conspicuous fraction of every eukaryotic genome, particularly in plants, are found to be tightly linked with plant chromosome evolution. Different classes of repetitive sequences have distinct distribution patterns on the chromosomes. Mounting evidence shows that repetitive sequences may play multiple generative roles in shaping the chromosome karyotypes in plants. Furthermore, recent development in our understanding of the repetitive sequences and plant chromosome evolution has elucidated the involvement of a spectrum of epigenetic modification. In this review, we focused on the recent evidence relating to the distribution pattern of repetitive sequences in plant chromosomes and highlighted their potential relevance to chromosome evolution in plants. We also discussed the possible connections between evolution and epigenetic alterations in chromosome structure and repatterning, such as heterochromatin formation, centromere function, and epigenetic-associated transposable element inactivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Alienness: Rapid Detection of Candidate Horizontal Gene Transfers across the Tree of Life
Genes 2017, 8(10), 248; doi:10.3390/genes8100248
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the transmission of genes between organisms by other means than parental to offspring inheritance. While it is prevalent in prokaryotes, HGT is less frequent in eukaryotes and particularly in Metazoa. Here, we propose Alienness, a taxonomy-aware web application
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Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the transmission of genes between organisms by other means than parental to offspring inheritance. While it is prevalent in prokaryotes, HGT is less frequent in eukaryotes and particularly in Metazoa. Here, we propose Alienness, a taxonomy-aware web application available at http://alienness.sophia.inra.fr. Alienness parses BLAST results against public libraries to rapidly identify candidate HGT in any genome of interest. Alienness takes as input the result of a BLAST of a whole proteome of interest against any National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein library. The user defines recipient (e.g., Metazoa) and donor (e.g., bacteria, fungi) branches of interest in the NCBI taxonomy. Based on the best BLAST E-values of candidate donor and recipient taxa, Alienness calculates an Alien Index (AI) for each query protein. An AI > 0 indicates a better hit to candidate donor than recipient taxa and a possible HGT. Higher AI represent higher gap of E-values between candidate donor and recipient and a more likely HGT. We confirmed the accuracy of Alienness on phylogenetically confirmed HGT of non-metazoan origin in plant-parasitic nematodes. Alienness scans whole proteomes to rapidly identify possible HGT in any species of interest and thus fosters exploration of HGT more easily and largely across the tree of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horizontal Gene Transfer)
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Open AccessCase Report Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene
Genes 2017, 8(10), 253; doi:10.3390/genes8100253
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease
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A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD, adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessOpinion Potential Role of Phase Separation of Repetitive DNA in Chromosomal Organization
Genes 2017, 8(10), 279; doi:10.3390/genes8100279
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The basic principles of chromosomal organization in eukaryotic cells remain elusive. Current mainstream research efforts largely concentrate on searching for critical packaging proteins involved in organizing chromosomes. I have taken a different perspective, by considering the role of genomic information in chromatins. In
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The basic principles of chromosomal organization in eukaryotic cells remain elusive. Current mainstream research efforts largely concentrate on searching for critical packaging proteins involved in organizing chromosomes. I have taken a different perspective, by considering the role of genomic information in chromatins. In particular, I put forward the concept that repetitive DNA elements are key chromosomal packaging modules, and their intrinsic property of homology-based interaction can drive chromatin folding. Many repetitive DNA families have high copy numbers and clustered distribution patterns in the linear genomes. These features may facilitate the interactions among members in the same repeat families. In this paper, the potential liquid–liquid phase transition of repetitive DNAs that is induced by their extensive interaction in chromosomes will be considered. I propose that the interaction among repetitive DNAs may lead to phase separation of interacting repetitive DNAs from bulk chromatins. Phase separation of repetitive DNA may provide a physical mechanism that drives rapid massive changes of chromosomal conformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Open AccessBrief Report Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MAPK and MAPKK Gene Families in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Genes 2017, 8(10), 284; doi:10.3390/genes8100284
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K) gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L. MAPKs and MAPKKs (TaMAPKs and TaMAPKKs) together with homologous genes from other species classified them into four groups, and the clustering was consistent with the genomic exon/intron structures. Conserved motif analysis found that MAPK proteins contained a typical TXY phosphorylation site and MAPKK proteins contained an S/T-X5-S/T motif. RNA-seq data mapping analysis showed that MAPK and MAPKK genes in group IV had tissue-specific expression profiles, whereas each group I member showed relatively high expression in all organs. Expression patterns of TaMAPK and TaMAPKK genes under stress conditions were also investigated and stress-responsive candidates were identified. Co-expression network analysis identified 11 TaMAPK genes and 6 TaMAPKK genes involved in the interaction network pathway. Overall, this study provided useful information for evolutionary and functional surveys of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in wheat and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Biodiversity of the Plant Genome Architecture)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Gustafson et al., Whole Genome Sequencing Revealed Mutations in Two Independent Genes as the Underlying Cause of Retinal Degeneration in an Ashkenazi Jewish Pedigree. Genes 2017, 8, 210
Genes 2017, 8(10), 286; doi:10.3390/genes8100286
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Following publication of our article [1], we identified discrepancies between the pedigree shown in Figure 1 and the rest of the text.[...] Full article
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