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Genes 2017, 8(11), 323; doi:10.3390/genes8110323

Origin and Evolution of the Neo-Sex Chromosomes in Pamphagidae Grasshoppers through Chromosome Fusion and Following Heteromorphization

1
The Federal Research Center, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lavrentjev Ave., 10, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
2
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Frunze str. 11, 630091 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
Novosibirsk State University, Department of Natural Sciences, Pirogov str., 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Abstract

In most phylogenetic lineages, the evolution of sex chromosomes is accompanied by their heteromorphization and degradation of one of them. The neo-sex chromosomes are useful model for studying early stages of these processes. Recently two lineages of the neo-sex chromosomes on different stages of heteromorphization was discovered in Pamphagidae family. The neo-sex chromosome heteromorphization was analyzed by generation of DNA probes derived from the neo-Xs and neo-Ys followed with chromosome painting in nineteen species of Pamphagidae family. The homologous regions of the neo-sex chromosomes were determined in closely related species with the painting procedure and image analysis with application of the Visualization of the Specific Signal in Silico software package. Results of these analyses and distribution of C-positive regions in the neo-sex chromosomes revealed details of the heteromorphization of the neo-sex chromosomes in species from both phylogenetic lineages of Pamphagidae grasshoppers. The hypothetical mechanism of the neo-Y degradation was suggested. It includes expansion of different repeats from the proximal neo-Y chromosome region by inversions, spreading them towards distal region. Amplification of these repeats leads to formation of C-positive regions and elimination of the C-negative regions located between them. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pamphagidae; grasshoppers; neo-sex; chromosome; evolution; neo-X; neo-Y; Fluorescent in situ hybridization; chromosome microdissection; DNA libraries; chromosome painting Pamphagidae; grasshoppers; neo-sex; chromosome; evolution; neo-X; neo-Y; Fluorescent in situ hybridization; chromosome microdissection; DNA libraries; chromosome painting
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Jetybayev, I.Y.; Bugrov, A.G.; Buleu, O.G.; Bogomolov, A.G.; Rubtsov, N.B. Origin and Evolution of the Neo-Sex Chromosomes in Pamphagidae Grasshoppers through Chromosome Fusion and Following Heteromorphization. Genes 2017, 8, 323.

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