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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 5 (May 2013), Pages 1471-1839

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Fermentation Profiles of Wheat Dextrin, Inulin and Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Using an in Vitro Digestion Pretreatment and in Vitro Batch Fermentation System Model
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1500-1510; doi:10.3390/nu5051500
Received: 11 February 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the fermentation and microbiota profiles of three fibers, wheat dextrin (WD), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and inulin, since little is known about the effects of WD and PHGG on gut microbiota. A treatment of salivary amylase, pepsin, and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the fermentation and microbiota profiles of three fibers, wheat dextrin (WD), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and inulin, since little is known about the effects of WD and PHGG on gut microbiota. A treatment of salivary amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin was used to better physiologic digestion. Fibers (0.5 g) were fermented in triplicate including a control group without fiber for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Analysis of pH, gas volume, hydrogen and methane gases, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were completed at each time point. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus CFUs at 24 h. WD produced the least gas during fermentation at 8, 12, and 24 h (P < 0.0001), while inulin produced the most by 8 h (P < 0.0001). Each fiber reached its lowest pH value at different time points with inulin at 8 h (mean ± SE) (5.94 ± 0.03), PHGG at 12 h (5.98 ± 0.01), and WD at 24 h (6.17 ± 0.03). All fibers had higher total SCFA concentrations compared to the negative control (P < 0.05) at 24 h. At 24 h, inulin produced significantly (P = 0.0016) more butyrate than WD with PHGG being similar to both. An exploratory microbial analysis (log10 CFU/µL) showed WD had CFU for Bifidobacteria (6.12) and Lactobacillus (7.15) compared with the control (4.92 and 6.35, respectively). Rate of gas production is influenced by fiber source and may affect tolerance in vivo. Exploratory microbiota data hint at high levels of Bifidobacteria for WD, but require more robust investigation to corroborate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1511-1530; doi:10.3390/nu5051511
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001) from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3. Full article
Open AccessArticle Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1531-1543; doi:10.3390/nu5051531
Received: 17 January 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 8 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, [...] Read more.
To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1561-1572; doi:10.3390/nu5051561
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 26 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in [...] Read more.
Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OH)D for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OH)D than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Is Dietitian Use Associated with Celiac Disease Outcomes?
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1585-1594; doi:10.3390/nu5051585
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the treatment for celiac disease (CD), but due to its complexity, dietitian referral is uniformly recommended. We surveyed patients with CD to determine if dietitian use is associated with quality of life, symptom severity, or GFD adherence. [...] Read more.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the treatment for celiac disease (CD), but due to its complexity, dietitian referral is uniformly recommended. We surveyed patients with CD to determine if dietitian use is associated with quality of life, symptom severity, or GFD adherence. The survey utilized three validated CD-specific instruments: the CD quality of life (CD-QOL), CD symptom index (CSI) and CD adherence test (CDAT). Four hundred and thirteen patients with biopsy-proven CD were eligible for inclusion. The majority (77%) were female and mean BMI was 24.1. Over three-quarters of patients (326, 79%) had seen a dietitian, however, 161 (39%) had seen a dietitian only once. Age, sex, and education level were not associated with dietitian use; nor was BMI (24.6 vs. 24.0, p = 0.45). On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age gender, education, duration of disease, and body mass index, dietitian use was not associated with CD-QOL, CSI, or CDAT scores. Our survey did not show an association between dietitian use and symptom severity, adherence, or quality of life. Delay in diagnosis was associated with poorer outcomes. This is a preliminary study with several limitations, and further prospective analysis is needed to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of dietitian-referral in the care of celiac disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Sources of Vitamin A in the Diets of Pre-School Children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1609-1621; doi:10.3390/nu5051609
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A is essential for growth and development. We investigated whether high consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods in the diets of pre-school children is detrimental to diet quality with respect to vitamin A. Data were collected from 755 children at 18-months and [...] Read more.
Vitamin A is essential for growth and development. We investigated whether high consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods in the diets of pre-school children is detrimental to diet quality with respect to vitamin A. Data were collected from 755 children at 18-months and 3½-years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using 3-day unweighed dietary records completed by parents in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Energy, carotene and retinol intakes were calculated. The quality of the diet declined from 18-months to 3½-years with respect to vitamin A. Preformed retinol intakes decreased by −54 μg/day on average (p = 0.003). Carotene intakes were similar at each age although there was a 23% increase in energy intake by 3½-years. Longitudinally those in the highest quartile of intake at 18-months were twice as likely to remain in the highest quartile at 3½-years for retinol (OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.48–3.28)) and carotene (OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.11–2.50)) than to change quartiles. Nutrient-rich core foods provided decreasing amounts of carotene and preformed retinol over time (both p < 0.001). Vegetables and milk contributed the highest proportion of carotene at both ages, but milk’s contribution decreased over time. Milk and liver were the largest sources of retinol. Nutrient-poor foods provided an increased proportion of energy (p < 0.001) with low proportions of both nutrients; however fat spreads made an important contribution. It is recommended that pre-school children should take vitamin supplements; only 19% at 18-months did this, falling to 11% at 3½-years. Care should be taken to choose nutrient-rich foods and avoid energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods when feeding pre-school children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Uncoupling Protein 3 Gene Expression in C2C12 Muscle Cells
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1660-1671; doi:10.3390/nu5051660
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial membrane transporter that is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle where it plays an important role in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid [...] Read more.
Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial membrane transporter that is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle where it plays an important role in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on UCP3 gene expression in C2C12 muscle cells. EPA and DHA up-regulated UCP3 mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner and similarly increased UCP3 promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells. To determine whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling may also directly regulate UCP3 expression, 5′-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR), an AMP analog that activates AMPK, was treated in C2C12 muscle cells. AICAR showed additive effects with EPA or DHA on the UCP3 promoter activation. These results indicate that EPA and DHA directly regulate the gene expression of UCP3, potentially through AMPK-mediated pathway in C2C12 muscle cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Association Study of Serum Selenium Concentrations
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1706-1718; doi:10.3390/nu5051706
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with serum selenium concentrations in 1203 European descents from two cohorts: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). We tested association between 2,474,333 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum selenium concentrations using linear regression models. In the first stage (PLCO) 41 SNPs clustered in 15 regions had p < 1 × 10−5. None of these 41 SNPs reached the significant threshold (p = 0.05/15 regions = 0.003) in the second stage (WHI). Three SNPs had p < 0.05 in the second stage (rs1395479 and rs1506807 in 4q34.3/AGA-NEIL3; and rs891684 in 17q24.3/SLC39A11) and had p between 2.62 × 10−7 and 4.04 × 10−7 in the combined analysis (PLCO + WHI). Additional studies are needed to replicate these findings. Identification of genetic variation that impacts selenium concentrations may contribute to a better understanding of which genes regulate circulating selenium concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessArticle A Diet Pattern with More Dairy and Nuts, but Less Meat Is Related to Lower Risk of Developing Hypertension in Middle-Aged Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1719-1733; doi:10.3390/nu5051719
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an ―a priori‖ diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive [...] Read more.
Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an ―a priori‖ diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive medications) and hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication). We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate this score in quintiles (Q) and each food group making up the score relative to incident HNBP or hypertension over nine years in the Atherosclerosis Risk of Communities (ARIC) study of 9913 African-American and Caucasian adults aged 45–64 years and free of HNBP or hypertension at baseline. Incidence of HNBP varied from 42.5% in white women to 44.1% in black women; and incident hypertension from 26.1% in white women to 40.8% in black women. Adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors, the ―a priori‖ food score was inversely associated with incident hypertension; but not HNBP. Compared to Q1, the relative hazards of hypertension for the food score Q2–Q5 were 0.97 (0.87–1.09), 0.91 (0.81–1.02), 0.91 (0.80–1.03), and 0.86 (0.75–0.98); ptrend = 0.01. This inverse relation was largely attributable to greater intake of dairy products and nuts, and less meat. These findings support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to consume more dairy products and nuts, but suggest a reduction in meat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1471-1487; doi:10.3390/nu5051471
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 30 March 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal [...] Read more.
Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Interaction between Host Cells and Microbes in Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1488-1499; doi:10.3390/nu5051488
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often develop mucositis as a direct result of their treatment. Recently, the intestinal microbiota has attracted significant attention in the investigation of the pathobiology of mucositis, with a number of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapeutic agents [...] Read more.
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often develop mucositis as a direct result of their treatment. Recently, the intestinal microbiota has attracted significant attention in the investigation of the pathobiology of mucositis, with a number of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the microbiota. With significant effects on the intestinal microbiota occurring following the administration of chemotherapy, there is now interest surrounding the downstream pathological effects that may be associated with the altered intestinal ecology. This review seeks to identify links between signalling pathways previously demonstrated to have a role in the development of mucositis, and the altered intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Figures

Open AccessReview Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1544-1560; doi:10.3390/nu5051544
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 99 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is marked by hepatic fat accumulation not due to alcohol abuse. Several studies have demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance leading to a resistance in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in the adipose tissue with an [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is marked by hepatic fat accumulation not due to alcohol abuse. Several studies have demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance leading to a resistance in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in the adipose tissue with an increase of free fatty acids (FFAs). The increase of FFAs induces mitochondrial dysfunction and development of lipotoxicity. Moreover, in subjects with NAFLD, ectopic fat also accumulates as cardiac and pancreatic fat. In this review we analyzed the mechanisms that relate NAFLD with metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia and its association with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
Open AccessReview Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1595-1608; doi:10.3390/nu5051595
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia [...] Read more.
It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1622-1647; doi:10.3390/nu5051622
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, [...] Read more.
The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Figures

Open AccessReview Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms of Luteolin on Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1648-1659; doi:10.3390/nu5051648
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a complicated progress, involving many types of cells. Although the exact mechanisms of progression of atherosclerosis are uncertain, the balance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis appears to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is a complicated progress, involving many types of cells. Although the exact mechanisms of progression of atherosclerosis are uncertain, the balance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis appears to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and much discussion has been undertaken to elucidate the detailed mechanisms, relevant gene expression and transduction pathways. Drug treatment has focused on ameliorating atherosclerosis. Some researchers have indicated that inhibiting VSMCs proliferation is involved in attenuating atherosclerosis. Luteolin is a kind of flavonoids naturally occurring in many plants and possesses beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Luteolin can reduce VSMCs’ proliferation and migration and this reduction is stimulated by several factors. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing inhibitory effects and mechanisms of luteolin on proliferation and migration of VSMCs, and consider whether luteolin may be a potential candidate for preventing and treating atherosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1672-1705; doi:10.3390/nu5051672
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary [...] Read more.
Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet–gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Selenium Metabolism in Cancer Cells: The Combined Application of XAS and XFM Techniques to the Problem of Selenium Speciation in Biological Systems
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1734-1756; doi:10.3390/nu5051734
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Determining the speciation of selenium in vivo is crucial to understanding the biological activity of this essential element, which is a popular dietary supplement due to its anti-cancer properties. Hyphenated techniques that combine separation and detection methods are traditionally and effectively used [...] Read more.
Determining the speciation of selenium in vivo is crucial to understanding the biological activity of this essential element, which is a popular dietary supplement due to its anti-cancer properties. Hyphenated techniques that combine separation and detection methods are traditionally and effectively used in selenium speciation analysis, but require extensive sample preparation that may affect speciation. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption and fluorescence techniques offer an alternative approach to selenium speciation analysis that requires minimal sample preparation. We present a brief summary of some key HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS studies of the speciation of selenium in cells and rat tissues. We review the results of a top-down approach to selenium speciation in human lung cancer cells that aims to link the speciation and distribution of selenium to its biological activity using a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). The results of this approach highlight the distinct fates of selenomethionine, methylselenocysteine and selenite in terms of their speciation and distribution within cells: organic selenium metabolites were widely distributed throughout the cells, whereas inorganic selenium metabolites were compartmentalized and associated with copper. New data from the XFM mapping of electrophoretically-separated cell lysates show the distribution of selenium in the proteins of selenomethionine-treated cells. Future applications of this top-down approach are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessReview Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1757-1800; doi:10.3390/nu5051757
Received: 13 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of [...] Read more.
Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Fatty Acids and Immune Response to Food-Borne Bacterial Infections
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1801-1822; doi:10.3390/nu5051801
Received: 5 April 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable [...] Read more.
Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable effects on bacterial clearance and disease outcome through suppression or activation of immune responses. Therefore, we have chosen to review research across experimental models and food sources on the effects of commonly consumed fatty acids on the most common food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether, the compilation of literature suggests that no single fatty acid is an answer for protection from all food-borne pathogens, and further research is necessary to determine the best approach to improve disease outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessReview The Role of Lutein in Eye-Related Disease
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1823-1839; doi:10.3390/nu5051823
Received: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are [...] Read more.
The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are present in high concentrations in contrast to other human tissues. We discuss the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in ameliorating light and oxygen damage, and preventing age-related cellular and tissue deterioration in the eye. Epidemiologic research shows an inverse association between levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in eye tissues and age related degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. We examine the role of these carotenoids as blockers of blue-light damage and quenchers of oxygen free radicals. This article provides a review of possible mechanisms of lutein action at a cellular and molecular level. Our review offers insight into current clinical trials and experimental animal studies involving lutein, and possible role of nutritional intervention in common ocular diseases that cause blindness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

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Open AccessIntroduction Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1573-1584; doi:10.3390/nu5051573
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a [...] Read more.
Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health)

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