Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1544-1560; doi:10.3390/nu5051544
Review

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease

1 Institute of Clinical Physiology National Research Council, Pisa 56100, Italy 2 Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA 3 Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Gastro-Hepatology, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
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Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is marked by hepatic fat accumulation not due to alcohol abuse. Several studies have demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance leading to a resistance in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in the adipose tissue with an increase of free fatty acids (FFAs). The increase of FFAs induces mitochondrial dysfunction and development of lipotoxicity. Moreover, in subjects with NAFLD, ectopic fat also accumulates as cardiac and pancreatic fat. In this review we analyzed the mechanisms that relate NAFLD with metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia and its association with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD); steatosis; visceral fat; lipotoxicity; insulin resistance; free fatty acids; dyslipidemia; cardiometabolic risk

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaggini, M.; Morelli, M.; Buzzigoli, E.; DeFronzo, R.A.; Bugianesi, E.; Gastaldelli, A. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1544-1560.

AMA Style

Gaggini M, Morelli M, Buzzigoli E, DeFronzo RA, Bugianesi E, Gastaldelli A. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(5):1544-1560.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaggini, Melania; Morelli, Mariangela; Buzzigoli, Emma; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Gastaldelli, Amalia. 2013. "Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 5: 1544-1560.

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