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Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1719-1733; doi:10.3390/nu5051719
Article

A Diet Pattern with More Dairy and Nuts, but Less Meat Is Related to Lower Risk of Developing Hypertension in Middle-Aged Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

1
,
1,* , 2
,
3
,
4
 and
1
1 Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, 1300 South 2nd Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA 2 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA 3 Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, 1200 Herman Pressler, Houston, TX 77030, USA 4 Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 3101 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB #7420, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
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Abstract

Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an ―a priori‖ diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive medications) and hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication). We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate this score in quintiles (Q) and each food group making up the score relative to incident HNBP or hypertension over nine years in the Atherosclerosis Risk of Communities (ARIC) study of 9913 African-American and Caucasian adults aged 45–64 years and free of HNBP or hypertension at baseline. Incidence of HNBP varied from 42.5% in white women to 44.1% in black women; and incident hypertension from 26.1% in white women to 40.8% in black women. Adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors, the ―a priori‖ food score was inversely associated with incident hypertension; but not HNBP. Compared to Q1, the relative hazards of hypertension for the food score Q2–Q5 were 0.97 (0.87–1.09), 0.91 (0.81–1.02), 0.91 (0.80–1.03), and 0.86 (0.75–0.98); ptrend = 0.01. This inverse relation was largely attributable to greater intake of dairy products and nuts, and less meat. These findings support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to consume more dairy products and nuts, but suggest a reduction in meat intake.
Keywords: diet pattern; healthy food score; hypertension; high normal blood pressure diet pattern; healthy food score; hypertension; high normal blood pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Weng, L.-C.; Steffen, L.M.; Szklo, M.; Nettleton, J.; Chambless, L.; Folsom, A.R. A Diet Pattern with More Dairy and Nuts, but Less Meat Is Related to Lower Risk of Developing Hypertension in Middle-Aged Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1719-1733.

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