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Special Issue "Dietary Fiber"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mark D. Haub (Website)

Physical Activity and Nutrition Clinical Research Concsortium, Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health, 212 Justin Hall, Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
Phone: (785)320-3330
Fax: +1 785 532 3132
Interests: evaluating lifestyle (diet and exercise) factors to increase insulin sensitivity using randomized clinical trials; Specific areas include: dietary fiber and resistant starch; protein amount and source; exercise physiology; and, diet supplements and ergogenic aids

Keywords

  • analytical issues
  • definitions
  • energy
  • fermentation
  • glycemic index/load
  • health outcomes/epidemiology
  • health outcomes/clinical trials
  • prebiotics
  • processing issues
  • resistant starch
  • sensory attributes/issues
  • solubility
  • whole grains

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Fermentation Profiles of Wheat Dextrin, Inulin and Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Using an in Vitro Digestion Pretreatment and in Vitro Batch Fermentation System Model
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1500-1510; doi:10.3390/nu5051500
Received: 11 February 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the fermentation and microbiota profiles of three fibers, wheat dextrin (WD), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and inulin, since little is known about the effects of WD and PHGG on gut microbiota. A treatment of salivary amylase, pepsin, and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the fermentation and microbiota profiles of three fibers, wheat dextrin (WD), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and inulin, since little is known about the effects of WD and PHGG on gut microbiota. A treatment of salivary amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin was used to better physiologic digestion. Fibers (0.5 g) were fermented in triplicate including a control group without fiber for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Analysis of pH, gas volume, hydrogen and methane gases, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were completed at each time point. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus CFUs at 24 h. WD produced the least gas during fermentation at 8, 12, and 24 h (P < 0.0001), while inulin produced the most by 8 h (P < 0.0001). Each fiber reached its lowest pH value at different time points with inulin at 8 h (mean ± SE) (5.94 ± 0.03), PHGG at 12 h (5.98 ± 0.01), and WD at 24 h (6.17 ± 0.03). All fibers had higher total SCFA concentrations compared to the negative control (P < 0.05) at 24 h. At 24 h, inulin produced significantly (P = 0.0016) more butyrate than WD with PHGG being similar to both. An exploratory microbial analysis (log10 CFU/µL) showed WD had CFU for Bifidobacteria (6.12) and Lactobacillus (7.15) compared with the control (4.92 and 6.35, respectively). Rate of gas production is influenced by fiber source and may affect tolerance in vivo. Exploratory microbiota data hint at high levels of Bifidobacteria for WD, but require more robust investigation to corroborate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber)

Review

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Open AccessReview Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1266-1289; doi:10.3390/nu2121266
Received: 8 November 2010 / Revised: 30 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 120 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber)

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