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The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids
UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, 3rd Floor, SSISA, Boundary Rd, Newlands, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow vallei, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Abstract: Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet–gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype.
Keywords: adipose tissue; dyslipidemia; SNP; dietary fat; inflammation; ethnicity
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Joffe, Y.T.; Collins, M.; Goedecke, J.H. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1672-1705.
Joffe YT, Collins M, Goedecke JH. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids. Nutrients. 2013; 5(5):1672-1705.
Joffe, Yael T.; Collins, Malcolm; Goedecke, Julia H. 2013. "The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids." Nutrients 5, no. 5: 1672-1705.