Next Article in Journal
Willingness to Pay for Carbon Sequestration and Co-Benefits of Forests in Turkey
Next Article in Special Issue
An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea
Previous Article in Journal
Transition Thinking Incorporated: Towards a New Discussion Framework on Sustainable Urban Projects
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3290-3310; doi:10.3390/su7033290

Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

1
Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
2
Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Kainan University, Taoyuan 338, Taiwan
3
Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan
4
Department of Tourism and Hospitality, TransWorld University, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
5
Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [17416 KB, uploaded 19 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA). We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic algorithms; simulated annealing; Taiwan; Taoyuan genetic algorithms; simulated annealing; Taiwan; Taoyuan
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, W.-T.; Huang, C.-W.; Chou, J.-Y.; Cheng, B.-Y.; Shih, S.-S. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching. Sustainability 2015, 7, 3290-3310.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top